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HRW: Bahrain: State of Fear Prevails With Arbitrary Detentions, Pre-Dawn Raids

Medical Doctors Among Those Held Incommunicado

April 7, 2011

(Manama) - Arbitrary detention appears rampant under Bahrain's state of emergency, with numerous cases in which authorities have abused people they detained or stopped, Human Rights Watch said today. Bahrain should account for everyone who has been detained and free those arbitrarily arrested following recent public protests, Human Rights Watch said.

The government has issued no registry of detainees since anti-government demonstrations erupted on February 14, 2011. Over the past six weeks, and especially since the main protests were crushed on March16, relatives and friends of the missing have reported to the Wifaq National Islamic Society, an opposition political society, the names of 430 people they say are held by police and military authorities. Wifaq depends on victims, relatives, or witnesses to inform it of detentions. A dozen members of families of the missing told Human Rights Watch that contact with their relatives had been limited to one extremely brief phone call to request fresh clothing. Authorities have not permitted families to visit their detained relatives. Freed detainees told Human Rights Watch of beatings and physical abuse.

"Emergency law does not provide authorities a free hand to trample basic human rights," said Joe Stork, deputy Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. "Bahrain has created a state of fear, not a state of safety."

Bahraini authorities should immediately publish a list of detainees and specify why they are being held, Human Rights Watch said. Anyone suspected of a crime should be permitted to communicate with lawyers and family, and brought before an independent judge. All members of the security forces responsible for abusing detainees should be held accountable.

"The government should permit independent inspections of detention centers and thoroughly investigate incidents of abuse," Stork said.

On March 16 police and soldiers used force to clear the Pearl Roundabout, the epicenter of demonstrations that began a month earlier. The government subsequently employed masked security officers and troops to suppress protests in Shia neighborhoods outside of the capital, leaving at least 18 civilians killed by security forces since the protests began. Police have routinely carried out nighttime raids on villages, invading households looking for people suspected of participating in or otherwise supporting anti-government protests.

Bahrain's police and military have operated under martial law, termed a "state of national safety," since March 15. On April 4 the government published a list of powers given the Bahrain Defense Force and other security forces. They are permitted to censor television, newspapers, and the internet; restrict nongovernmental groups, political societies, and unions; curb movement and seal off parts of the country; and make arrests of anyone suspected of threatening "the safety of citizens."

Detentions and arrest raids have escalated even as demonstrations have virtually ceased. Many of the people who spoke with Human Rights Watch asked the organization not to publish their names out of concern for their safety.

Cases of Detention

Relatives of Jalila al-Aali, an endocrinologist at Salmaniya Hospital, dropped her off at the Adliya Criminal Investigation Directorate, part of the Ministry of Interior, on April 4 after officials called her in for questioning. Police kept her there overnight, and relatives phoned the next day at 9 a.m., 2 p.m., 4 p.m., and 5:30 p.m. to ask about her well-being and whereabouts. During the 5:30 p.m. phone call, an officer who said his name was Nabil told the family she was not there, but declined to say where she was.

On April 4 police detained Nahad al-Shirawi, a physician in Salmaniya's intensive care unit, taking her from the hospital to the Adliya CID station, her father, Nabil al-Shirawi, told Human Rights Watch. The next day, a police officer called the family to request clothing for her. Her sister and brother delivered the items, but officers at Adliya station did not permit them to see or speak with her, Nabil al-Shirawi said. He said he suspected that police detained al-Shirawi because she had been photographed weeping over a dead victim of a police crackdown on a demonstration.

At about 2 a.m. on March 28 police raided the home of Hassan Jassim Mohammed Maki, a 39-year old laborer, in the village of Karzakan. Masked men, some in blue police uniforms and some in civilian clothes, broke down the front door and asked for "Hussein," relatives told Human Rights Watch.

When told that nobody by that name lived there, police asked everyone's name. When they discovered Hassan, they handcuffed and slapped him and took him away. The family heard nothing about his fate until April 3, when they received a mid-morning call to bring his passport to Salmaniya Hospital. There, they were told that Maki had died of heart failure and that his death must have been a complication of sickle cell anemia. His body was brought in from another location, the relatives said. According to the death certificate, Maki died in Jaw Prison.

"We only were able to find out about Hassan after he died," a relative said. "Otherwise, we never have heard anything about him."

Human Rights Watch viewed photographs taken during the cleansing of Maki's body for burial, which showed bruises on the back and front of his body as well as his ankles and small wounds on the back of the head. His family did not ask hospital officials to perform an autopsy.

A relative of Afrah Mansour al-Asfour, an Arabic language teacher, said police took her from her home in the Magaba neighborhood, on March 29, following a 3 a.m. police raid. Al-Asfour had received a call from education ministry officials a week before inquiring whether she had been involved in organizing demonstrations at her school. On April 2 officials from the Interior Ministry's Criminal Investigation Directorate called her husband to ask to have someone bring al-Asfour fresh clothing. Her husband took clothing to the Adliya CID station but was not permitted to visit with her, the relative said. No one would tell him why his wife was under arrest, and he left an hour later.

Maki Hater, the father of 17-year old Ahmed Maki Hater, told Human Rights Watch that Ahmed was wounded at a demonstration in the town of Sitra on March 14 when police fired pellet guns at close range. An ambulance took him to a nearby clinic and then to Salmaniya Hospital. He spent three hours in intensive care and then was transferred to a ward on the fourth floor.

At about 10 p.m. police in black uniforms, which Bahrainis associate with a SWAT-type unit, entered the ward and checked patients for wounds, said Hater's father, who was there. Seeing pellet-gun wounds, they pulled Hater from his wheelchair and took him away in a car. Police told his parents that they would call them from Nuaimi police station to let them know when they could visit Hater. His mother went to the police station on March 18, but was not permitted to see him. She brought clothing the next day, which officers accepted.

On March 21, the family called the station to ask about Hater's whereabouts and was told he was not there. When they asked where Hater was, the person on the other end of the phone simply repeated that he was not at the station.

"Until now, that's all we know," Maki Hater told Human Rights Watch.

Mahmoud Hassan, 45, a worker at the ruling Al Khalifa family's stables, disappeared sometime on February 14. Family members searched Salmaniya hospital and local police stations. On March 29 Hassan called from Riffa police station and asked relatives to bring a change of clothes. They dropped the clothing off, but authorities there did not permit them to see him. After midnight on April 3, while his wife and their three young children were staying elsewhere, about two dozen police raided their empty house and overturned furniture and belongings, neighbors said. A laptop computer, antique cameras, pet birds, and a cat were missing, relatives said.

Abuse of Medical Patients

Released detainees described being beaten when they sought medical treatment. Abdallah Abbas told Human Rights Watch that he entered Ibn Nafis Hospital on March 16 for treatment of pellet-gun wounds to his arms and back. Shortly afterward, three policemen arrived and took him to Salmaniya Hospital. Over the following three nights, they slapped and kicked him numerous times.

On March 21, he said, police made a video of him and other wounded patients in a fourth-floor ward, instructing them to say they belonged to Hezbollah, the Lebanese Shia party and militia, and that he had been trained in Iraq. When he refused, they inflicted more beatings. After midnight on March 22, he said, police blindfolded him and took him to Nuaimi police station. There they kept him with other prisoners beneath a staircase where officers occasionally kicked them. A few hours later, the prisoners were released. Abbas said he still has some pellets in his arm, but is afraid to go to a clinic or hospital for treatment.

Harassment, Beatings at Checkpoints

Shiite citizens also risk harassment, beatings, and arrest at the plethora of checkpoints throughout Bahrain. A 17-year-old high school student told Human Rights Watch that police in blue uniforms detained him and two other youths at 9 a.m. on March 18 at a checkpoint near Manama, the capital. The police found a text message on his mobile phone giving a time of a past demonstration.

They bound him with plastic handcuffs, blindfolded him, and took him to Nuaimi station. There, he and other detainees were kept standing from 2:30 p.m. until 9 p.m. When they were allowed to sleep, they received occasional kicks and were told to say they "loved" the prime minister, Shaikh Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa. The youths were released at 5 a.m.

A 22-year-old teacher told Human Rights Watch that police stopped her as she drove to work on April 2 at Roundabout Seven. Police in blue uniforms and helmets dragged her from her car, put a gun to her head, forced her to the ground, stripped her of her black headscarf, and demanded she use it to clean their shoes. As she complied, someone from behind kicked her in the back and left her sprawling on the pavement.

A uniformed army officer finally stopped at the scene and ordered police to end the abuse. The police pushed her back into her car, tossed in her scarf, and let her go.

"I haven't tried to go to work since," she told Human Rights Watch. "I am too afraid."

State of Emergency Law

"This reprehensible behavior goes beyond any measures permitted under a state of emergency," Stork said.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which Bahrain ratified in 2006, permits some restrictions on rights during an officially-proclaimed public emergency that "threatens the life of the nation."

According to the Human Rights Committee, the international body of experts that monitors state compliance with the treaty, derogation of rights during a public emergency must be of an exceptional and temporary nature and must be "limited to the extent required by the exigencies of the situation." Fundamental rights, such as the right to life and the right to be secure from torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment, must be respected.

People held as administrative detainees under a lawful state of emergency should be brought before a judicial authority promptly, be informed of the reasons for detention, and have access to legal counsel and family members. Detainees should also be allowed to challenge the lawfulness of their detention before an independent judicial authority and to seek remedy for mistreatment and arbitrary arrest.


Bahrain: Human right defenders, bloggers and political activists at high risk

Targeted/their houses were stormed /escaped arrest/ most are in hide (Updated 06 April 2011)

As compiled by Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights and Bahrain Center for Human Rights

1 Sayed-Yousef Al-Mahafdha Active member of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR), House was stormed early morning 20 March.

2 Nabeel Rajab President of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights and vice Secretary General of the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Arrested briefly and beaten on 20 March. Banned from travel to Geneva to attend a human rights meeting his communications is cut. He was harassed again on 30 March while interviewed by CNN crew at his house.

3 Mohammed Al-Masqati President of the Bahrain Youth Human Rights Society (BYHRS), His photo, address and phone number was published on the internet with a message that he should be killed.

4 Abdulhdi Alkhawaja Former president of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR), His photo, address and phone number was published on the internet with a message that he should be killed.

5 Naji Fateel Board member of the Bahrain Youth Human Rights Society (BYHRS), His photo, address and phone number was published on the internet with a message that he should be killed.

6 Salman Naji Member of the Committee for the Unemployed. Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House stormed early morning 28 March. His brothers, Ali and Hussain were beaten.

7 Abdul Gani Khanjer Head of the Committee of the Victims of Torture. Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

8 Abdul Amir Al Aradi Activist. Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

09 Hisham AlSabbagh Active member of the Islamic Action Society (AMAL), House was stormed

10 Fahmi Bakalwa board member of Islamic Action Society (AMAL), House was stormed

11 Hussain Omran Activist. Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

12 Ali Abdul Imam Prominent blogger. Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

13 Dr. Mohammed Saeed Member of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR). Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

14 Ahmed Jawad Al-Fardan Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

15 Ali Jawad Al-Fardan Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

16 Mohammed Ali Al-Mahfoudh Cleric. Secretary General, Islamic Action Society (AMAL) House stormed early morning 21 March.

17 Abdulla Alsaleh Cleric. Deputy Secretary General, AMAL House stormed early morning 21 March.

18 Habib Abdulla Hassan Cleric. Former board member of AMAL House stormed early morning 21 March. His younger brother Jaffer was arrested

19 Sayed Mahdi Al-Mousawi Cleric. Associated with AMAL, House in Bani Jamra was stormed early morning 21 March.

20 Mohammed Habib Al-Mugdad Prominent cleric. Was detained in August 2010 and recently released. House was stormed

21 Maryam Alkhawaja, Since February 14th she has been subjected to death threats, harassment and defamation. As one of the main people reporting on violations to the international community and institutions, this puts her life at great risk and she is currently unable to return to Bahrain in fear of arrest.

22 Suhail Mahdi Saleh Alshehabi, Member of the Committee for the Unemployed. Was detained from August 2010 to Feb 2011 during which reportedly subjected to torture, On 3 April, 1:30 am, his house was stormed. The doors were broken down. His two brothers were severely beaten and threatened to rape their wives if they did not reveal the place of their brother Suhail. All in the presence of elderly father and sick mother.

Bahrain: Thousands are subjected to dismissal of work

as part of severe clampdown on all who joined or openly supported the protest movement.

King’s son says: No escape for opponents of his father

Issued by Bahrain Centre for Human Rights – 6 April 2011

The Authorities in Bahrain has staged a campaign to dismiss or take strict measures against thousands of employees and workers including those working in the public sector, university, main national companies and professionals in sectors such media and sport. This comes as a part of a crackdown on the pro-democracy demonstrations which also include until now: the arrest of around 400 community leaders and activists, daily harassments and use of excessive force by military and security forces against Shiaa villages and at check points, and the ongoing sectarian hate campaign by pro-government media against Shiaa citizens and opposition groups.

King’s son says no escape for opponents of his father:

On 4 April Nasser Al-Khalifa, a son of the king of Bahrain and the head of Bahrain Olympic Committee, made an oral intervention on a show broadcasted by Bahrain official TV, stating that restrictive measures will be taken against everybody who participated in anti-government protests during the last two months. Naser Al-Khalifa said: “..Bahrain is an island with no escape passage, everybody who interfered in these issues will be punished and everybody who took a stand (supporting the regime) will be awarded. The people who stood with or against the king are well-known to us[1] ”.

National government-run companies:

According to a pro-government newspaper, on the 4th of April, BATELCO (Bahrain Telecommunication Company) sacked 85 workers after an internal investigation reportedly found them guilty of taking part in a nationwide strike[2] .

An investigation committee formed by Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO) to probe the absence of employees during recent events decided to sack nine members from the governing body of its trade union for their role of instigation and participation in the general strike. It acquitted two members and decided to continue investigations with two others. The committee is also conducting an investigation against employees who were absent from work during recent events. Around 230 employees will be subjected to investigation as the first group. Earlier, it had also dismissed company union chairman Abdulghaffar Abdulhussain[3] .

According to a source from the government run aluminum company (ALBA), the number of its workers dismissed had now reached 150. More than 100 employees have also been sacked from APM Terminals, the company which runs the Khalifa Bin Salman Port, in addition to 50 from Bahrain Airport Services (BAS), and 17 from Gulf Air. Three Gulf Air workers have also been suspended, pending further investigation[4] . TAMKEEN, a government project to train and find jobs for the unemployed, has reportedly terminated two year job-training contracts at BATELCO with 100 Shia citizens.

The Public sector:

Several hundreds of employees and workers at the public sector, who do not have the right to form or join trade unions, are also being reportedly subjected to punishments and dismissal for suspicion of participation in protests and absence of work during national strike. Public sectors which contain high percentage of Shia, such as education and health, could whiteness a wider wave of punishments and dismissals. No statistics or information has been provided yet.

According to the official Bahrain News Agency (BNA) on 6 April, the Ministry of Health suspended 30 doctors and nurses who had been referred to an investigation committee and that many more employees will be sacked in the coming days[5] .

University of Bahrain (UOB):

University of Bahrain announced on 6 April that investigation committees had recommended the dismissal of; a female dean of one of the colleges, 7 university professors, 25 administrators and 62 university students. It recommended also the suspension of 5 PhD scholarships, issuing a final worming for a female professor and a first worming to another female professor. The announcement stated that the committees will continue investigations with many others for “having been part of disruptive events” [6] .

The media sector:

Fatima Al-Khawaja (Journalist and Radio programmer) and Rashed Abdul-Raheem Shareef (technical radio programmer), were dismissed last week from their jobs at the government-run Radio without prior notice, apparently, for suspicion of sympathizing with protestors demands. Furthermore, on the 3rd of April, Government-influenced Board of Directors of Al-Wasat daily newspaper fired editor-in-chief Dr. Mansoor Al Jamri, managing editor Waleed Nuwaihedh, and local news editor Aqeel Mirza. This occurred a day after Bahrain TV accused the newspaper of deliberately publishing plagiarized news in support of protesters. Two Iraqi journalists working for the same newspaper since 2005 have been deported. The Information Affairs Authority (IAA) confirmed yesterday that a case filed against Dr. Al Jamri and the publication was now being investigated by the Public Prosecution. Pro-government Al-Ayam daily newspaper has reportedly dismissed four journalists all belonging to the Shiaa sect.

Sports sector:

On the 4th of April, on a show broadcasted by Bahrain official TV, two TV broadcasters and two sports officials (all pro Government belonging to the Sunni Muslim sect) interviewed via phone well-known national athletes and sports officials (all belonging to the Shiaa Muslim sect) regarding their participation in protests or sympathizing with protesters. The interviews had a tone of interrogation and accusation of treason. During the show, the broadcasting team repeated the urgent need to take firm action against all athletes who took part in or supported the protests. During the show, they announced that AlMuharraq Sports Club had decided to suspend all athletes who participated in protests, and that Al-Refa Club had suspended a football player, Mahmood Al-Ejmi, for the same reason. They also stated that boards of other well-known clubs were having urgent meetings to do the same. Three National team football players were arrested the following day: Alaa Hubail, Mohammed Hubail and Ali Saeed while a well-known basketball player was not found by security forces at his home. It is worth noting that relatives of the king occupy all high ranking positions in the national sport institutions and the major sports clubs.

According to the official Bahrain News Agency (BNA) on 6 April, the National Oil and Gas Authority (NOGA) announced that Mohammed Adnan Mahfoudh Mohammed (The wel-known national team football player) is no longer working for it. It is be noted that Mohammed Adnan joined the Oil Ministry in 2003[7] .

Background information:

The General Federation of Bahrain Trade Unions (GFBTU), first announced a nationwide strike after the killing of peaceful protestors calling for reforms by the military and security forces on the 14th and 15th of February. However, the GFBTU called it off on February 20th, after the military first withdrew from the Pearl Roundabout. The GFBTU then announced an indefinite strike on March 13th in solidarity with protesters who had been violently evicted from the area adjacent to the Bahrain Financial Harbor, which was also called off on March 22nd on condition that the authorities secure the safety of workers while on their way to work.

Since the 13th of March, residents belonging to the Shiaa sect have been afraid of going to work or driving out of their neighborhoods because of the spread of a new phenomenon that began to appear in Bahrain: roaming gangs in civilian clothes, armed with guns or long sticks. They were often masked and sometimes clad in military boots, which many Bahrainis took as proof that they were members of government security forces. These gangs set up their own checkpoints and targeted Shia civilians which resulted in many arrests, injuries, disappearances, and in some cases: death.


The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR) calls upon the relevant international actors concerned with protection of human rights to take applicable action and calls upon the authorities in Bahrain to:

• Allow a prompt, independent and transparent investigation in all circumstances that lead to the escalation of events and absenteeism from work, including killing and injuring hundreds of citizens and the role of armed thugs in hindering people from going to their workplaces. • Promptly restore all the rights of those who lost their jobs or were otherwise punished as a result of practicing their basic rights and freedoms including support or participation in peaceful activities. • Refrain, as work providers and through influence on the private sector, from mass sackings and other repressive measures to punish dissidents and activists. • Promptly engage in serious dialogue with opposition and independent civil society groups to address the grievances and demands for reforms in order to promote human rights and restore peace and stability.


[1]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lTTgOWNf2A [2]Batelco sacks 85 [3]Trainees sacked [4]same as previous [5]NOGA Fires Mohammed Adnan Mahfoudh [6]Bahrain University Fires College Dean, 7 Teachers, 25 Administrators and 62 Students [7]NOGA Fires Mohammed Adnan Mahfoudh

CPJ: Bahrain manipulates daily and deports 2 Journalists

New York, April 6, 2011-

On Tuesday, authorities in Bahrain deported Al-Wasat's managing editor, Ali al-Sharifi, and columnist Rahim al-Kaabi, both Iraqi nationals, according to news reports and CPJ interviews. Maryam al-Shrooqi, a columnist at the daily, told CPJ that to her knowledge the government gave no reason for its decision. She added that al-Sharifi was only appointed managing editor on Monday, after his predecessor and two other senior employees < href="http://cpj.org/2011/04/bahrain-manipulates-critical-daily-attacks-in-liby.php">stepped down in an effort to save the paper. Obeidli al-Obeidli, who was appointed editor of Al-Wasat by its board this week, declined to comment on the deportations.

CPJ report on April 6

New York, April 4, 2011--The Bahraini government continued its attempts at muzzling critical media with the Ministry of Information ordering the country's premier independent daily temporarily shut down on Sunday. The Committee to Protect Journalists condemns the Bahraini government's strong-arm tactics, which effectively forced a change in a prominent paper's editorial management. In Libya, Iraq, and Yemen, independent and critical media continue to be targets for government intimidation and harassment, CPJ research found.

Al-Wasat did not appear on newsstands on Sunday and its online edition was disabled, according to local and international news reports. The Information Ministry accused Al-Wasat of "deliberate news fabrication and falsification during the recent unrest that gripped the Kingdom of Bahrain," the official Bahrain News Agency reported. On Monday, president of the Information Affairs Authority, Shaikh Fawaz bin Mohammed al-Khalifa, lifted the ban after the paper's editor-in-chief, Mansoor al-Jamri, Managing Editor Walid Nouwaihidh, and Local News Director Aqeel Mirza stepped down.

"Resigning was a difficult decision but it is what was needed to safeguard the newspaper and the livelihood of its staff," al-Jamri told CPJ. "The paper has been subjected to a relentless campaign of intimidation by the authorities."

Bahrain has intensified its crackdown on media since imposing a state of emergency last month, CPJ research shows.

"Alleging bias in Al-Wasat's coverage without providing credible evidence to support such a claim is laughable," said Mohamed Abdel Dayem, CPJ's Middle East and North Africa program coordinator. "Bahrain has previously hurled unsubstantiated accusations of bias in order to silence critical media, most prominently against Al-Jazeera last year when the government wanted to shut the channel's local bureau.

CPJ report on April 4

Freedom House Condemns Ongoing Crackdown in Bahrain

April 5, 2011

Freedom House is deeply concerned about the alarming increase in restrictions on the media and targeted harassment and arrests of opposition leaders and Shiites in Bahrain since martial law was declared on March 14, and calls on the government of Bahrain to end the state of emergency and to immediately release those arrested.

On April 3, opposition newspaper Al Wasat was blocked due to accusations by the government of “lies, falsification and plagiarism” regarding the situation in Bahrain. The government lifted the ban later that day following the announcement of a new editor-in-chief. Today, two Al Wasat reporters from Iraq were deported. There are also reports that on March 28, a new decree was issued stating that any information published regarding ongoing investigations would be banned on grounds of national security.

“The use of emergency laws by regimes with nefarious agendas is not new and most often coincides with a deterioration of fundamental freedoms for all citizens. We have witnessed this throughout the region, from Egypt to Syria,” said David J. Kramer, executive director of Freedom House. “Freedom House calls on the Bahraini government to stop using the restoration of ‘security and public order’ as a cover for quelling peaceful voices of dissent.”

More than 25 people have died since the protests began in mid-February, and several hundred people have reportedly been arrested or have disappeared in the weeks since the emergency law was declared. Blogger Mohamed Al-Maskati (www.emoodz.com) was arrested on March 31, and has not been heard from since. Prominent bloggers Mahmood Al-Yousif and Manaf Al-Muhandis were also arrested last week but released the following day. Several opposition activists are being held incommunicado and many others are receiving threats. Disturbing allegations are also surfacing that Saudi and Bahraini military forces, as well as armed thugs, are raiding homes, mosques and Shiite husseiniyahs; harassing people at checkpoints; and threatening women. Migrant workers in Bahrain have also faced threats and violence. Bahrain is ranked Not Free in Freedom in the World 2011, Freedom House's survey of political rights and civil liberties, and Not Free in Freedom of the Press 2010.

For more information on Bahrain, visit:

Freedom in the World 2011: Bahrain Freedom of the Press 2010: Bahrain Countries at the Crossroads 2010: Bahrain


ILO Director-General sounds alarm on situation of workers in Bahrain

Statement | April 5, 2011

The Director-General of the International Labour Office, Juan Somavia, has reiterated the grave concern he expressed in a letter of 1 April to the Prime Minister of Bahrain at developments in the country, in particular over reports of widespread acts of anti-trade union discrimination against leaders and members of the General Federation of Bahrain Trade Unions. Director-General Somavia urges Bahraini Authorities to take immediate and firm actions to ensure that workers and their unions in Bahrain do not face any further form of unfair, unjust and degrading treatment for having expressed their legitimate rights in accordance with the principles of freedom of association.

In the wake of the recent wave of peaceful demonstrations which were met by the Bahraini authorities with excessive use of force and the declaration of a state of emergency, the ILO has received further information about dismissals of GFBTU activists and other repressive measures that effectively undermine its capacity to exercise its legitimate trade union functions.

The most recent reports received from the International Trade Union Confederation, of which the GFBTU is an affiliate, point to a further degradation of the situation. The ITUC says that about 300 workers have been dismissed for participating in strikes and demonstrations. They include the dismissal of Abdul Ghaffar Abdul Hussain, President of the Bahrain Petroleum Company Trade Union and former President of the GFBTU, as well as members of the Executive Board of the GFBTU for “instigating workers and employees to take part in a general strike”. He and others are also reported to face legal prosecution for the same reasons.

Mass dismissals have also been reported at the Alba Aluminium Company, the Khalifa Sea Port and Gulf Air. The General Secretary and Vice-President of the Bahraini Teachers’ Association are amongst the six members of the organization arrested on 29 and 30 March. Reports from last night indicate the detention of Mrs. Rulla el Saffar, President of the Bahrain Nursing Society whose whereabouts remain unknown. Furthermore the Bahrain News Agency reported today that Parliament is calling on the Government to take immediate legal measures against the heads of trade unions and associations who have supported the strike and to refer them to the public prosecutors office.

All this information is extremely alarming, in particular as the General Federation of Bahrain Trade Unions had called on workers to return to work and had been given assurances by State officials that they will not face any punitive measures for their participation in strikes. Indeed, the GBFTU had taken a constructive attitude in inviting the workers to return to work in the interest of the national economy and to allow for conditions that would strengthen the basis for a national dialogue.

Given the deterioration of the situation the Director-General has decided to organize a high level ILO mission to Bahrain as soon as possible to dialogue and address with the government as well as worker and employer organizations the reported anti-trade union acts and to promote the process of tripartite cooperation, which is the surest path forward from Bahrain’s situation of crisis.

The Director-General stated on 15 March that it was urgent to intensify efforts towards the dialogue that had started between the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain and the key actors of society, among them worker and employer organizations. Today, therefore, it is a matter of the deepest concern that resort to discriminatory action in contradiction with ILO Conventions would, in addition to violating the basic rights of Bahraini workers, undermine the conditions for genuine and successful dialogue.

The International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization.


PHR Reports Disappearances of at Least Two Bahraini Doctors in Past 24 Hours

Cambridge, Mass. – April 5, 2011 – According to Physicians for Human Rights’ investigators in Bahrain, doctors are disappearing as part of a systematic attack on medical staff. Today PHR investigators learned that two physicians are missing following interrogations by unknown security forces at Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama.

“We know of at least two doctors who have disappeared in the last 24 hours,” said Richard Sollom, PHR’s lead investigator. Although families have tried to contact the administration officials with whom the doctors were last seen, the administration denies any knowledge of their whereabouts. According to family members, the physicians are being held incommunicado in unknown locations.

“Unfortunately, these incidents aren’t isolated,” said Sollom. “They seem to be part of a systematic attack on doctors in Bahrain. Doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals have an ethical duty to prevent and limit suffering of patients in their care, and a duty to practice medicine in a neutral way without fear or favor. PHR calls on the Government of Bahrain to release these medical professionals unharmed in the absence of legitimate charges, or to formally charge them and assure them a fair and impartial trial.”

PHR has a long history of investigating attacks against medical personnel. The human rights law, international humanitarian law, and medical ethics that define “medical neutrality” dictate noninterference with medical services in times of civil unrest.


Individuals Killed By Government's Excessive Use of Force Since 14 February 2011

(Updated 06 February 2015):

The following list includes the names of individuals whose death has been confirmed by the Bahrain Center for Human Rights to have been caused as a direct result of the government's excessive use of force. Each case below has been subjected to a careful review by trained BCHR staff, and medical professionals have been consulted where appropriate. However, due to limits on BCHR staff capacity and government attacks on human rights defenders, this list is not exhaustive.



• 24 recorded deaths during the 3 month National State of Security, including 5 while in police custody.

• Over 30 deaths since the issuance of BICI report.

• 18 children, under the age of 18, among the killed.

• Among causes of deaths: Direct shots with live ammuniction, torture and beating to death, and suffocation with tear gas

• The list includes three police men, who according to the Interior Ministry, were affiliated with the government security services and died as a result of being "run over by an unidentified car". The list also includes non-Bahrainis.
Excel Sheet of the same list , check below for more details.




96 Sayed Mahmood Sayed Mohsen Sayed Ahmed, 14 years old, Sitra. On the 21st of May 2014, Sayed Mahmood was pronounced dead on arrival at Sitra Medical Center after being chased, ambushed, and shot in close range with shotgun pellets by police during a funeral procession in Sitra. BCHR Report


95 Abdulaziz Mosa AlAbbar, 27 years old, Saar. On the 18th of Apr 2014, Al-Abbar died after spending two months in a coma after sustaining critical brain injury as a result of a shot in the head with a tear gas canister. BCHR Report


94 Jaffar Mohammed Jaffar AlDurazi, 23 years old, Al-Diah. On the 26th of Feb 2014 the head of the Rehabilitation and Corrections Department announced the death of the detainee Jaffar AlDurazi while receiving medical treatment at the Salmanniya Medical Comple due to Sickle Cell Anemia Disease. The BCHR received information that AlDurazi was subjected to torture and poor prison conditions while in prison, as well as ill-treatment. BCHR Report


93 Fadhel Abbas Muslim Marhoon, 19 years old, Al-Diraz, Date of Death: 26 Jan 2014. Fhadhel died as a result of live bullets fired by the police, following 18 days of his enforced disappearance. BCHR Report


92 Yousif Ali AlNashmi, 31 years old, Al-Musallah, date of death: 11 Oct 2013. Yousif died due to the authorities practice of arbitrary arrest, torture and deprivation of adequate medical treatment. BCHR Report


91 Hussain Mansoor Abdulla Kadhem, 33 years old, Malkiya, date of death: 29 July 2013, died as a result of a car crash caused by a police officer's reckless driving. BCHR Report


90 Abdul Ghani AlRais, 66 years old, Diraz, date of death: 01 April 2013, died as a result of psychological effects after he was informed of the arbitrary arrest of his son. BCHR Report


89 Mahmood Isa AlJazeeri, 20 years old, Nabih Saleh, Date of Death: 22 Feb 2013, died due to a direct tear gas canister hit to his head. BCHR Report


88 Hussain Ali Ahmed Ebrahim, 16 years old, Daih, Date of Death: 14 Feb 2013 Ebrahim died of a direct shotgun blast he received from close range. BCHR Report

87 Qassim Habib, 8 years old, Karbabad, Date of death: 26-JAN-2013 Habib died as a result of tear gas suffocation. Report: BCHR Report


86 Habeeb Ebrahim, 87 years old, Malkiya, Date of death: 12-JAN-2013 Ebrahim died as a result of tear gas suffocation. Report: BCHR Report

85 Bassil Al-Qattan, 44 years old, Shakhoora, Date of death: 19-Dec-2012 Died as a result of tear gas suffocation. Report: BCHR Report

84 Ali Radhi, 16 years old, Samaheej, Date of death: 9-Nov-2012 BCHR Report

83 Mahdi Ali Marhoon, 84 years old, Maameer, Date of death: 17-Oct-2012 He was transferred to hospital two months earlier, after suffocating with tear gas. His house in Maameer was targeted with tear gas several times. Report: Manama Voice

82 Mohammed Mushaima, 22 years old, Date of death: 2-Oct-2012 BCHR Report

81 Ali Hussain Neamah, 17 years old, Saddad, Date of death:28-Sep-2012 BCHR Report

80 Hussam Al Haddad, 16 years old, Muharraq, Date of death: 17-Aug-2012 BCHR Report

79 Shabeer Mammed, 27 years old, Indian, Date of death: 22-April-2012 He was found dead in his room in Sanad village. Area residents said the houses close to his were attacked with tear gas in the night before. His death is linked to suffocation of tear gas.

78 Salah Abbas Habib, 36 years old, from Bilad Alqadeem, Date of death: 21 April 2012 He was arrested, beaten and shot with birdshots. BCHR Report

77 Khadija Mohammed Ali, from Ma'ameer, Date of Death:5 April 2012 She Suffered from toxic/tear gas suffocation for 3 months in hospital ICU until her death was announced.

76 Ahmed Ismael Hussain AlSamadi, 22 years old, Salmabad, Date of Death: 31-Mar-2012 Was shot in the right thigh (lower abdomen) by armed civilians. Report and photos BCHR | RSF | CPJ | UN

75 Ahmed Abdulnabi AbdulRasool, 30 years old, died on 24 March 2012 due to tear gas suffocation as per his family. Ahmed's sister is having trouble breathing as well due to the excessive use of tear gas by Bahraini security forces almost on a nightly basis. Ahmed's family said that he never had any berthing problems until this past week when he suffocated from tear gas twice. Tear gas was shot directly into their home, window broken. After that Ahmed had trouble breathing and was constantly coughing. When his family insisted he go to the hospital he refused, fearing arrest. Report: BCHR

74 Abdat Ali AbdulMohsen, in her 40s, from Aali, died on 23 March 2012 she died from tear gas suffocation according to her family. Abda, who is in her 40's, had suffered from breathing difficulties on the 15th of March, and she was taken to the hospital where she stayed for a week. On the 22nd of March her house was tear gassed again, her health deteriorated quickly and she died on the morning of the 23rd of March. Report: BCHR

73 Sabri Mahfoodh Yousif, 27 years old, Shahrakan, Date of Death: 19-Mar-2012 His family members confirmed to BCHR his death as a result of toxic gas asphyxiation. Report: BCHR

72 Jaffar Jassem Radhi, 41 years old, Date Of Death: 17-Mar-2012 He died after severe deterioration of his health as a result of excessive tear gas that was shot directly at his house in the previous night 16 March 2012. Report: BCHR

71 Fadhel AlObaidy, 22 year old, Diraz, Date of Death: 10-Mar-2012 He was shot in the head with a teargas canister on March 1st, 2012 when he was peacfuly protesting. He was announced clinically brain dead on 2nd March at the Bahrain International hospital (private hospital), and he passed away in the early hours of Saturday 10 March 2012. According to eye witnesses, security forces continued to beat, punch and kick Fadhel after he was shot in the head with a teargas canister. Report: BCHR

70 Sakeena Marhoon, in her 70s, Date of Death: 06-Mar-2012 She died after suffering from side effects of repeated inhalation of toxic gases thrown by security forces inside her house several times in Feb and March 2012. Report: BCHR

69 Yahya Yousif Ahmed, one month and a half, Date of Death: 05-Mar-2012 He died after suffering from side effects of toxic gas during pregnancy. Report: BCHR

68 Sayed Jaffar Salman AlAlawi, 75 years old, Shakhora, Date of Death: 2 March 2012 He was beaten severely on 15 Feb 2011 by Bahrain security forces, which left him with head injury and hip injury. He fell in comma and when he woke up he lost his memory and his health deteriorated. He spent the past year in hospital until his death was announced. Photo

67 Habib Kadhim Almulla, 60 years old, Sehal, Date of Death: 29-Feb-2012 He died on morning of Feb 29, 2012 due to teargas suffocation. Last friday, teargas was shot inside his home in Sehla, it broke the window and made him suffocates, and he was moved to to Salmanya hospital. His brother told BCHR that this was not the 1st time that Habib suffocates from the fired gases, but it was the 3rd time. Report: BCHR

66 Abda Hussain, 68 years old, Sehla, Date of Death: 25-Feb-2012 The cause of death was related to inhaling excessive amounts of tear gas which was filling the village (Sehla) which she lived in. Report: Alwefaq

65 Rose Nisha Naikarottu Baby Varghese, India, Date of Death: 21-Feb-2012 On 25 January, she entered a coma during an asthma attack that her family says may have been caused by tear gas inhalation. She died on 21 February, a day before she was to be sent home to India for treatment. Report: gulf daily news

64 Mansoor Salman, 85 years old, Sitra, Date of Death: 18-Feb-2012 Mansoor Salman passed away in the morning due to deterioration of his health as a result of inhalation of toxic gases shot by security forces on 2 Feb 2012. He was transferred to SMC after suffocating with toxic gases and he stayed there until he died yesterday. Mansoor's death due to toxic gases is the last of a series of similar incidents where people dies because of heavy shooting of tear (toxic) gas in residential areas. (Report)

63 Ali Issa Abdulla Alhayeki, 48 years old, Samaheej, Date of Death: 6-Feb-2012 Family confirmed to BCHR that he suffered from suffocation from teargas that was shot in front of his house in Samaheej. Report BCHR

62 Abdali Ali Mohamed, 58 yrs old, Maamer, Date of dath: 1-Feb-2012 His house often get attacked with tear gas. He was exposed to tear gas on 27 Jan 2012. Admitted to hospital directly where he still until his death was announced. Report: BCHR

61 Zahra Ali Alhawaj, 69 years old, Noaim, Date of Death: 1-Feb-2012 According to her family she was exposed to tear gas multiple times. The last was on 12 Jan 2012 and her health deteriorated immediately following tear gas inhalation as her home area in Noaim (close to capital Manama) was tear-gassed. She was admitted to hospital ICU in the same night where she stayed without any improvement to her health. She suffered inflammation of the lungs. She didn’t suffer of any illness before. His death was announced on early hours of 1 Feb 2012. Report: BCHR

60 Saeed Ali Al-Sukari, 65 years old , from Aali, Date of Death: 25-Jan-2012 Family says it's due to excessive tear gas that was thrown in the area the night before. For difficulty of verifying the cause of death, the BCHR demands an independent forensic examination of the deceased. Report BCHR

59 Abbas Jaffar AlShaikh, 26 years old, from Daih, Date of Death: 25-Jan-2012 Death announced at Salmanyia hospital due to cancer. Abbas is a protester who was injured many times since Feb 14, 2011, including injuries caused by birdshots. Speculations are that because he was increasingly subjected to teargas, that may have sped up the cancer. For difficulty of verifying the cause of death, the BCHR demands an independent forensic examination of the deceased. Report BCHR

58 Muntadher Saeed Fakhar, 37 years old, from Sanabis, Date of Death: 25-Jan-2012 (Photo) He died under torture in Hoora police station within 24 hours from time of arrest. Report BCHR

57 Mohamed Ebrahim Yaqoob, 18 years old, from Sitra, Date of Death: 25-Jan-2012 (Photo) , was a victim of run over attempt by police in the afternoon- video then was arrested, few hours later the ministry of interior announced his death. Report BCHR

56 Mohamed Khamis AlKhunaizi,26 year old, Jidhafs, Date-of-Death: 20-Jan-2012 He vomited after being subjected to excessive teargas, after which he went to sleep. He was found dead by his family a few hours later. Report and photos BCHR

55 Yaseen Jassim AlAsfoor, 14 year old boy, Maameer/AlEker, Date of Death: 20-Jan-2012 He was taken to the hospital after he was subjected to excessive teargas. His house was shot with three tear gas canisters at the time. He suffers from acute asthma and he was moved to the ICU when his lungs collapsed. Yaseen was in the hospital for 3 weeks before passing away. Report and photo: BCHR

54 Salma Muhsin, 81 years old, Barbar, Date of Death: 15-Jan-2012 She died from teargas suffocation after a canister was shot into her home.

53 Yousif Ahmed Muwali, 24 years old, Qalali, Date of Death: 13-Jan-2012 Yousif had gone missing five days. When his mother went to the police station to file a missing persons report she was told that Yousif was at the CID and that he was fine. Death was announced by MOI. When the family were finally able to see the body, the uncle reports via the lawyer that there are clear marks of torture on the victims head and neck. Report: BCHR-1 | BCHR-2

52 Fakhria Jassim AlSakran, 55 year old, Isa Town/Muharraq, Date of Death: 03-Jan-2012 Has been killed after inhaling a lethal does of tear gas. Report: BCHR

51 Sayed Hashim Sayed Saeed , 15 years old, Sitra, Date of Death: 30-Dec-2011 was shot with a teargas canister in the side of the face which caused his death. Report and Photos: BCHR

50 Abdulali Ali Ahmed, 73 years old, Muqsha, Date of death: 17-Dec-2011 He died due to tear gas inhalation. He was taken to a hospital Saturday morning after struggling to breath during a night of heavy clashes near his home along the Budaiya highway, where security forces have used tear gas excessively. Al-Mouali said Ahmed died Saturday evening. Report BCHR

49 Ali Ahmed AlQassab, 21, AbuSaiba, Date of death: 15-Dec-2011 He was run over and killed as he fled security forces chasing protesters near Budaiya Highway where protesters were trying to occupy the street. Report BCHR

48 Sajida Faisal, 5 DAYS old, Bilad AlQadeem, Date of death: 11-Dec-2011 She died from teargas suffocation according to her parents. Report BCHR

47 Zahra Saleh 27 years old, Safera/Daih, Date of death: 7-Dec-2011 She was hit with metal rod in head on 18 Nov. The government insists that the protesters were the ones who had hit her and that she had turned to the security forces for protection. My colleague went to the hospital, as well as a member of AlWefaq party, to try to speak to Zahra; both of them were stopped, questioned then turned away by Ministry of Interior employees. Also, in Bahrain, it is highly unlikely for anyone to turn to police for protection, especially someone who was supporting the protest movement as was seen on her facebook page. Report BCHR

46 AbdulNabi Kadhem, 44 years old, Aali, Date of death:23-Nov-2011 On morning of 23 nov 2011, Abdul Nabi Kadhem, was fatally wounded when his car was intentionally hit by fast-moving police vehicle, forcing him to collide with a standing wall of a building. Reports: AP | aljazeera | FT

45 Ali Yousif Baddah, 16 years old, Sitra, Date of Death: 19-Nov-2011 A 16-year-old Bahraini was killed Saturday morning when a police car crashed into him during a protest in the capital Manama. Ali al-Satrawi died at the scene due to injuries sustained after being pinned under the police car before it crashed into a wall. Photos (Graphic) Report: BCHR | DPA

44 Ali Hasan al-Dehi, 70 years old, Daih, Date of Death: 03-Nov-2011 died of his injuries early Thursday after riot police attacked him Wednesday evening. He was taken to hospital to treat his injuries but died at 12.30am Thursday after suffering a cardiac arrest. His home was also attacked in September when rubber bullets were fired into the house. Report AFP | Alwefaq

43 Ahmed Jaber AlQattan, 16 years, Shakhura, Date of Death: 06-Oct-2011 Ahmed Jaber AlQattan was shot by the security forces at close proximity during a protest with the pellet shotgun, which seems to have penetrated his heart and/or lung and caused his death. Ahmed was immediately taken to the International Hospital, around 3 miles from Manama. After emergency treatment he died at around 10.15pm (Bahrain time). Photos (Graphic) Photo1 | More Photos Reports BCHR | Amnesty | Minstery of Interior | ASSOCIATED PRESS | nytimes | BBC | AlJazeera

42 Jaafar Lutf Allah, 74 years, Abu Saiba'a , Date of death: 30-Sep-2011 Jaafar was admitted to hospital on 18 Sep 2011 after suffering from tear gas inhalation, as reported by his family to Alwasat newspaper. He is suffering from paraplegic, and the doctor ordered that Jaafar stays at hospital because of the amount of gas he was exposed to. His family complained of the excessive amount of tear gas thrown in the area near their house as it's located at the entrance of the village. Jaffar's death was announced on 30 Sep 2011.

41 Jaffar Hasan, 28 years, Demistan, Date of Death: 18-Sep-2011 Back in March 2011, the security forces stormed his house twice in search of his wanted brother, each time they beat him up severely. His health deteriorated due to the kicking on his chest, and he was taken to Salmaniya Medical Complex for treatment and then to Jordan. He was in the Salmanyia ICU since 8 Aug 2011 until he passed away on 18th August 2011. Photo showing marks of beating on his back | More Photos Report: BCHR

40 Sayyed Jawad Ahmed, 36 years old, Sitra, Date of Death: 14-Sep-2011 He died after inhaling tear gas fired at protesters Tuesday night. The brother, Mohammed, says Ahmed was hospitalized and died Wednesday. Photos Reports: BCHR | AP

39 Ali Jawad Ahmad al-Shaikh, 14 years old, Sitra, Date of death: 31-August-2011 He died from a head injury after being hit by a tear gas canister thrown by riot police. Photos: The Canister | Photo2 | Photo3 Reports: BCHR | Amnesty | BYSHR | CNN | Al Jazeera

38 Isa AlTaweel, 50 year old , Sitra , Date of death: 31-July-2011 He died due to teargas suffocation. A teargas canister was shot under his AC which filled his room with smoke. AlTaweel uses a wheelchair and thus was unable to leave his room quickly. Several days later the excess of teargas inhalation caused complications and caused his death yesterday. His family was threatened not to speak about the cause of death. For more related accidents check this report.

37 Zainab Hassan Ahmed al-Jumaa, 47 years, Sitra, date of death: 15-7-2011 She suffocated after inhaling tear gas fired by riot police at demonstrators in her home town of Sitra last Friday. she is a disabled and was not able to move out of the room. She is mother of two girls. Here is a video showing police throwing tear gas canister INSIDE houses in Sitra on the same day Zainab died http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygp6id7xvk8

36 Majeed Mohammed Abdulaal, 30 years, Northern Sihla, date of death: 30-6-2011 He died due to direct shots of shotgun splinters, birdshotsn, into the head. He was admitted to Salmanyia hospital on 15 Mar with sever head injuried caused by shot gun, after getting attacked by armed civilians (thugs) on the road in his area Sehla. His family was not allowed to visit. He disappeared after the army took over the hospital and his death was announced on 30 Jun at the BDF hospital. The authority refused to admit cause of death. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W159b9-VAKg Majeed_Ahmed.pdf

35 Jaber Al Elewat, 43years, date of death: 12-6-2011 He was released from prison then died after one day due to torture in prison. There were signs of torture on his body and he was facing pain in his stomach before dying. photo

34 Sayed Adnan Sayed Hassan, 44 years, AlMarkh, date of death: 23-6-2011 He died as a result of suffocation from poisonous gas and tear gas, which, were shot by riot police in one of the religious events in Duraz. He died after he was hospitilized in the hospital. photo

33 Salman Isa AbuIdrees, 63 years, Manama, date of death: 3-6-2011 Was injured on 16th March attack on protesters. Not confirmed if he was a protester or was just passing by area on that day. Family was not able to visit him on the hospital until the day he was announced dead. 

32 Zainab AlTajar, Sanabis, date of death: 3-6-2011 Riot police started to attack a peaceful protest with shooting tear gas, where she was walking. The massive amount of tear gas made her suffocate and die.

31 Mohammed Abdulhussain Farhan, 6 years old, Sitra, date of death: 30-4-2011 The youngest martyr in Bahrain died due to suffocation from tear gas that riot police shot at houses in Sitra village on 29 of April, Friday. Therefore, was taken to the ICU Intensive Care Unit in the hospital where he died on Saturday morning. photo

30 Aziza Hassan Khamis, 25 years old, Bilad AlQadeem, divorced with one daughter, date of death: 16-4-2011 Riot police broke into her house at midnight. She witnessed riot police beating up one of her relatives, directing a gun at her and threatining her. Due to that, her sugar levels boosted up, made her faint, and then die.

29 Kareem Fakhrawi, 49 years, Date of death: 12-Apr-2011 On April 12, the opposition group Wifaq National Islamic Society announced that one of its members, a businessman and a founder of the Alwasat newspaper, named Kareem Fakhrawi, had died in custody. He reportedly was last seen at the Exhibition Centre Police Station on April 3 as he went to the police station to file a report and complaint about a raid on one of his relative's houses. Marks of torture were visibile on his body. Photo1 | Photo 2 | More Photos Reports: HRW 1 | HRW 2 | BCHR | CPJ | UN | Freedom House

28 Zakariya Rashid Hassan AlAshiri, 40 years, AlDair, Date of death: 09-Apr-2011 The Ministry of interior has announced on 9 April 2011, the death of Zakariya Rashid Hassan in detention center, six days after his arrest (2 April) on charges of inciting hatred, disseminating false news, promoting sectarianism and calling for the regime’s overthrow in online forums. He moderated a now-closed forum where updates about the protest were posted. His family has rejected the interior ministry’s claim that he died as a result of sickle cell anemia complications. Marks of torture seen on his shoulder and wrist. Photo1 and Photo2 | More Photos Reports: Amnesty | HRW | BCHR | CPJ | RSF | UN

27 Ali Isa Saqer, 31 years, Sehla, Date of death: 09-Apr-2011 The Ministry of interior has announced on 9 April 2011, the death of Ali Isa Saqer in detention center. He had been arrested on charges of attempt to murder policemen by trying to run over them in his car. The Ministry of interiors claimed that "the suspect created chaos at the detention centre, prompting the security forces to interfere to bring the situation under control, but he resisted them sustaining injuries in the process. He was taken to the hospital and later died." Weeks after his death, Bahrain T.V showed Ali's “confessions” on 28 April 2011 , check this report Marks of torture seen on his body Photo1 | Photo2 | More Photos. Reports: Ministry of Interior | HRW | Amnesty | AP | BYSHR | BCHR

26 Sayed Hameed Mahfoodh Alsari, 61 years, Saar, Date of death: 06-Apr-2011 He had been reported missing on 5 April evening. Ministry of interior reported finding his body lying in Saar on 6 April. Relatives said Mahfoodh went missing Tuesday evening and allege he was killed by police. An Interior Ministry statement said it is investigating but that an external examination showed no signs of beating or attack. However photos showed very clear signs of beating similar to the ones on the body of Abdul-Rasoul al-Hujairi (no.18 on this list) Photos Marks of beating | More Photos Reports: AP | Ministry of Interior | Alwasat news

25 Hassan Jassim Mohammed Makki 39 years, Karzakan, Date of death: 03-Apr-2011 The Ministry of interior has announced on 3 April 2011, the death of Mr Hassan Jassim Mohammed Makki, aged 39, in a detention centre where he has been kept since his arrest on 28 March as a suspect of being involved in the recent unrest. The General Inspector of the Ministry, Ibrahim Habib A-Ghaith, claimed that the cause of death is a hereditary blood disease suffered by detainee. Photos: Marks of torture | More Photos Reports: Amnesty | BCHR 1 | HRW | Ministry of Interior | BCHR 2

24 Sayed-Ahmad Sa’eed Shams, 15 years, Saar, Date of death: 30-Mar-2011 Born Sep. 1996. Student in Duraz Secondary School. Died on the way to the American Mission Hospital in Saar after being shot in the face by security forces. Photos injuries on the body | Video | More Photos Reports: BCHR | Witness speaking at minute 3:00 (Video) | IHRC | AP

23 Isa Mohammed Ali Abdullah, 71 years, Ma'ameer, Date of death:25-Mar-2011 Died of asphyxiation in his home after police fired extensive tear gas in the village of Ma’ameer. His family called the emergency room but there was no response from Salmaniya hospital. Ma’ameer has been blockaded by police forces and a lack of hospital assistance made it impossible to revive him. Sons of the victims said that they were forced by the Ministry of Interior to sign that their father’s death was of natural causes. Photos Reports: Al Wefaq | HRW

22 Aziz Jumma Ayyad, 33 years old, Al-Hajar / Hamad Town , Date of death: 24-Mar-2011 Has been working at the Bahrain Defense Force (BDF) for 10 years. His family lost contact with him for 10 days, during which the BDF denied that they have anyone with that name. On 24 March the family was contacted by the authorities to tell them that he was admitted to the military hospital. Two hours later they were contacted again to tell them that Aziz is dead as a result of heart attack. According to death certificate he died 9 days earlier. There are suspensions that being a Shiaa, his death is suspicious as his body was held for 10 days and authorities denied they had any information about him. Photos: at time of death | More photos Reports: Alwasatnews | BCHR

21 Hani Abdul-Aziz Abdullah Jumah, 32 years old, Khamis, Date of death: 24-Mar-2011 A cleaner and the father of 1 year old twins. He was shot by riot police on March 19 at a building, which was under construction, and was found unconscious, lying in a large pool of his own blood. He sustained massive injuries to his knees and arm caused by being shot at point-blank range with a shotgun. HRW examined the scene of the attack on March 22, three days afterwards, and found fragments of bone, which a medical expert confirmed to be fragments of knee bone consistent with being shot at close range, as well as a tooth and pieces of human tissue still stuck to the wall and ceiling of the empty room, apparently the result of the velocity of the shots that maimed Jumah. On March 24, 2011, five days after his attack, the Bahraini Defense Force (BDF) hospital informed Jumah's family that he had succumbed to his injuries and that they could pick up his body at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC) the next morning. Photos: of injuries on body | death certificate | More photos Reports: Video report of HRW on the scene | HRW | BCHR | Jadaliyya

20 Bahia Abdelrasoul Al-Aradi (Ms), 51 years old, Manama, Date of death: 21-Mar-2011 A female nurse. She was shot in the head on 15th March by a sniper. She was on the phone with her younger sister when she was shot. According to witnesses who came to her aid from nearby houses, they were also shot at by the military vehicles parked on a highway near Al-Gadam roundabout. Bahia's family refused to take her body when they were asked to sign a paper saying that she died in a car accident. Final official death certificate stated that Bahia died as result of "severe brain injury" Photos: the car | Bahia | More photos Video of the car after the incident: Reports: alwasatnews | Human Rights Watch | BCHR | Reuters | Al Jazeera | ABC News

19 Jawad Mohammed Ali Shamlan, 48 years old, Al-Hajar, Date of death: 20-Mar-2011 Works for the military. Gunshot in the stomach. Signs of beating on his back. On 16 March he went to work at Khamis police station but did not come back home. A person answered his mobile saying to the family that Shamlan is killed. The family were unofficially informed that he was at the Military hospital. 21 March a relative recognized his body at the morgue at Salmaniya Hospital. Photo of Jawad Shamlan at time of death | More photos Reports: alwasatnews | Human Rights Watch | BCHR

18 Abdul-Rasoul Hassan al-Hujairi, 38 years old, Bouri, Date of death: 20-Mar-2011 Was stopped at a checkpoint on 17th March. Ministry of interior reported finding his body in a remote area in Awali and contacted his family on March 20th to receive his body. Signs of harsh beating all over the body. Photo of Abdul-Rasoul al-Hujairi at time of death | More photos Reports: Al Jazeera English (Video) | Human Rights Watch | BCHR

17 Aklas Miah, 50 years old, Bangladish, Date of death: 15-Mar-2011 Has been in Bahrain for 31 years, A father of 3 girls. Died as a result of bullet wound in the head during an attack on Sitra village by security forces, reportedly while defending woman protestors. Buried on 23 March in Gulap Gong village in Sylhet, Bangladesh. Photo of Aklas Miah at time of death and another photo | More photos Reports: alwasatnews | BCHR

16 Isa Radhi al-Radhi, 47 years old, Sitra, Date of death: 19-Mar-2011 Was missing since 15 March, family was called to pick up the body. He was severely beaten all over his body and his skull and neck were broken. His legs bear pellets of bird shotgun. The official death certificate states that the cause of death was broken skull and brain bleeding. Photo of Isa Radhi at time of death | More photos Reports: alwasatnews | Human Rights Watch | BCHR

15 Ali Ahmad Rashid Al-Mraisi 30 years old, Rafa’, Date of death: 16-Mar-2011 According to the Interior Ministry, he is affiliated with the government security services and was killed during clashes with anti-government protesters. Died as a result of being "run over by an unidentified car" in Sitra on March 15. Reports: alwatannews | alwasatnews | Human Rights Watch

14 Mohammed Faruq Abd al-Samad al-Balooshi , Pakistani, Date of death: 16-Mar-2011 According to the Interior Ministry, he is affiliated with the government security services and was killed during clashes with anti-government protesters. Died as a result of being "run over by an unidentified car" Reports: alwatannews | alwasatnews | Human Rights Watch

13 Kashef Ahmed Munther (security man),21 years old, Date of death: 16-Mar-2011 According to the Interior Ministry, he is affiliated with the government security services and was killed during clashes with anti-government protesters. Died as a result of being "run over by an unidentified car" Photo of Kashef Munther Reports: alwatannews | alwasatnews | Human Rights Watch

12 Ahmed Abdulla Hassan, 22 years old, Daih/Hammad Town, Date of death: 16-Mar-2011 Bird shotgun wounds in the neck, back and legs after the attack on the pearl roundabout on 16 Match 2011 Photo of Ahmed Abdulla at time of death: Photo1 | Photo2 | Photo3 and Video | More photos Reports: Alwasatnews | Human Rights Watch | BCHR

11 Jaffer Mohammed abd-Ali, 41 years old, Karraneh, Date of death: 16-Mar-2011 He was killed with Live bullet pierced arm and settled in his chest on Wednesday morning on his way to Pearl Square to reinforce the protesters’ lines during the military assault on the encampment. Photos of Jaffer AbdAli at time of death: Photo1 | Photo2 | Photo3 | Photo4 | Photo5 Reports: Human Rights Watch | BCHR

10 Jaffer Abdulla Ma’yuf, 30 years old, Aali, Date of death: 16-Mar-2011 Shot with birdshot in the leg during the raid of roundabout, and then with a live bullet on the back and settled in the chest. He was unable to reach Salmaniya hospital. They took him to Jidhafs medical center which was not equipped to treat such cases. The bleeding was heavily continuing, so they took him to Ibn Nafees Hospital (private hospital), but he died before reaching the hospital. Photo of Jaffer Abdulla Ma’yuf at time of death and another photo Reports: Human Rights Watch | BCHR

9 Steven Ebraham, 48 years old, India , Date of death:16-Mar-2011 An Indian expatriate working as a security guard, was shot in the chest on 16 March 2011, after the brutal attack on the protesters on the pearl roundabout. He was standing on the terrace of a building at Manama when Bahrain security personnel reportedly fired at him during an air surveillance of pro-reform protesters, who had gathered on the streets on Wednesday evening. He bled to death as he could not be taken to a hospital. photo of Steven Ebraham at time of death Reports: Deccan Chronicle | Times Of India | Indian Express | Alwasat | enduringAmerica

8 Ahmed Abdulla Farhan, 30 years old, Sitra, Date of death:15-Mar-2011 Shot in the head with stun grenade at point blank. Ahmed had the misfortune of going to refuel his car at a petrol station on the outskirts of his hometown, Sitra, when it came under attack from heavily armed troops belonging to the Bahraini Defence Force and Saudi army. He was shot in the head by Saudi soldiers as he lay fatally wounded on the ground. Video of Ahmed Farhan at time of death and another video with photos and another photo Reports: Finian Cunningham | Human Rights Watch 29-Mar | BCHR

7 Abdul-Redha Mohammed Buhmeid, 32 years old, AlMalkiya , Date of death: 21-Feb-2011 Shot in the head. Abdul Redha Mohammed Hassan, died in the Salmaniya Hospital in Manama due to his wounds on Feb. 21. He had been shot in the head from close range on Feb 18 when Bahraini army forces shot anti-government demonstrators whom have tried to approach the Pearl Square in order to remove any injured protesters still their from the previous night attack. The murder of Abdul-Redha Mohammed Buhmeid is recorded on Video and still photo Photo of Abdul-Redha at time of death , another photo and Video Reports: msnbc | Amnesty International | Human Rights Watch 29-Mar | Human Rights Watch 28-Feb | BCHR | PHR

6 Ali Mansoor Khudhair, 53 years old, Sitra, Date of death:17-Feb-2011 Bird shotgun wounds. He died in the early hours with 91 pellets pulled from his chest and side in febreuary 17th, after riot police used what appears to have been severely excessive force, to disperse protesters camping at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama. Photo of Ali Khudhair at time of death and Video Reports: New York Times | Amnesty International | Human Rights Watch | BCHR

5 Mahmood Ahmed Makki (Abu-Takki), 23 years old, Sitra, Date of death:17-Feb-2011 Bird shotgun wounds. Mahmood was was woken up at 2:30 in the morning by the security forces with guns in hand. Despite the cries of ”We are peaceful!”, he was killed after being exposed to fissile bullets during the army raid to protesters, while he was in Pearl Square. Photo of Mahmood Makki at time of death Reports: Aljazeera | Amnesty International | Human Rights Watch | BCHR

4 Ali Ahmed Abdulla al-Moumen, 23 years old, Sitra, Date of death: 17-Feb-2011 Ali al Moumen left his home in the neighbourhood of Sitra early on Thursday morning, bound for Pearl Square. He then was killed after being exposed to fissile and rubber bullets during his attempts to help medics saving wounded people after the massacre caused by army. He was shot with bullet in hip, main artellies were cut in both legs which caused him to bleed to death Photo of Ali al Moumen at time of death Reports: Amnesty International | Human Rights Watch | BCHR | thenational.ae | Aljazeera

3 Isa Abdul-Hassan, 60 years old, Karzakkan, Date of death:17-Feb-2011 He was killed in Pearl Square after being exposed to fissile bullet straight in head which leads to skull burst and brain scattering. Medical evidence shows indicates that he was probably shot from within two meters. Photo of Isa Abdul-Hassan at time of death Reports: Amnesty International | Human Rights Watch 29-Mar | Human Rights Watch 28-Feb BCHR

2 Fadhel Salman al-Matrook, 31 years old, AlMahoz, father of two, date of death: 15-Feb-2011 As police tried to disperse people gathered for the funeral march of the first victim to die in the unrest, al-Matrook was killed during his participation in the funeral ceremony of Martyr Ali Mushaima on Tuesday 15 March. Martyr exposed to fissile and rubber bullets which penetrated his chest and heart to end his life. Photo of Fadhel al-Matrook at time of death Reports: Amnesty International | Human Rights Watch | BCHR | The Star

1 Ali Abdulhadi Mushaima, 21 years old, al-daih, date of death: 14-Feb-2011 He was shot in the back Monday afternoon, reportedly with birdshot, at a demonstration on 14 February in al-Daih village, in the north of Bahrain. He was taken to al-Salmaniaya hospital in Manama, the capital, but died one hour later as a result of injuries. Photo of Ali Mushaima at time of death Reports: Amnesty International | Human Rights Watch | BCHR | CNN

Other relevant information: • Alayam, a pro- government newspaper, reported that Rashid Hamad Al-Ma'amari, a taxi driver, was beaten by “terrorists”, whilst Al-wasat daily newspaper reported details by an eye witness that it was a traffic accident. • A Pakistani worker died when Pearl Roundabout was razed.. huge concrete pieces fell on the crane he was operating...he died on the spot.

ANHRI: Bahrain: Crackdown Victim Toll To Increase

The Arabic Network condemns closing down alWasat newspaper and Expelling Academics and Administrators From Bahrain University

Cairo , April 4th ,2011

The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information today denounced the continued Bahraini security campaigns with the support of the Saudi government against Bahraini activists and dissidents. The crackdown started with the suppression of peaceful demonstrations using weapons , bullets and troops of Peninsula Shield ,a campaigns to undermine protests to sectarian protests and extended to the pursuit and arrest of Internet activists and dissidents who took part in the protests or spread news about them. The crackdown went as far as closing the independent Bahraini newspaper alWasat against the backdrop of reporting on oppression against protesters in Bahrain. The government claimed that closing the newspaper was due to breaching of professional ethics,. This resolution shows the intention of the Bahraini authorities to restrict all opposition and independent media and give room to media promoting government’s views .

On the other hand ,University of Bahrain issued a press statement on Friday, April 1st , declaring the dismissal of many academics and administrators and discipling many students and scholars for their involvement in peaceful protests demanding democracy. The statement described the protests as “serious events” and pointed that the investigations are still on and that the door is still open to expel and punish others.

The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information, “The Bahraini government is carrying out campaigns of harassment and exclusion of the opposition and independent media, supported by external forces , to avenge dissent and keep them away from all the influential positions in Bahrain . he Bahraini government targets controlling all media and education in the country, with the aid of Peninsula Shield troops and Saudi Arabia sending more than 1000 soldiers to participate in the suppression of protests, which led to a relative control of the protests“.

The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information warned the Bahraini government of going too far in targeting and suppression of the opposition. This will only lead to further divisions and tensions calling upon more violence and completely wasting the opportunity for dialogue and reform in Bahrain. For more information: