16 Dec, 2008

Bahraini Forces attack residents to prevent a demonstration calling for release of political and human rights activists

Using tear gas, rubber bullets and all means of force, Bahraini Special Forces (BSF) fiercely attacked the residents of village of Sanabis in an attempt to suppress a demonstration started from within the village after being banned from being launched from its declared position. The sponsoring group of the event composed of fourteen well known scholars, political, human rights activists publically called for a peaceful demonstration to be held last Friday. The demonstration is to call for cleansing the Bahraini prisons from all political and human rights defenders. Three days before the event, the sponsoring group informed the Authorities of its call and passed a written notification to the Capital Security Authorities who refused to receive it. An hour before the event, the BSF, armed and outnumbered, besieged the location where the demonstration should launch, preventing any body from coming close. Protestors then gathered in the nearby village of Sanabis and initiated a demonstration, towards the other end of the village, away from the location of the BSF. The security forces fiercely attacked the demonstration as it reached the main road, and showered it with rubber bullets and tear gas. Protestors reverted to the village main center, but the BSF chased them into Sanabis throwing big quantities of gas and the bullets, on the residents of the village. Protestors and people from the village re-acted by blocking main roads with garbage containers, setting fire into them . This situation continued until the evening, and resulted in the arrest of some detainees.

The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) expresses its concerns over the violent attitude of the Authorities towards freedom of assembly, and the violent re-action by the demonstrators. A month ago, the same group held a sit-in in front of the Bahrain Mall, calling for the same demands and was attended by representatives of the Bahrain Human Rights Society, the Bahrain Center for Human Rights, the Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights, local committees defending the rights for detainees in addition to some political societies. The event lasted for over an hour without any clashes or misconduct. The act of the Bahraini Authorities is in violations to articles of the ICCPR, conceded by Bahrain on September 20, 2006, in particular that for freedom of expression and freedom of assembly. Article 19 of ICCPR states that "Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference". Article 21 of the same covenant states that:"The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order, the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others".


For further information contact Nabeel Rajab, President, BCHR, Manama, Bahrain, tel: +973 3963 3399 / 3940 0720, fax: +973 1779 5170, e-mail: nabeel.rajab@bahrainrights.org, info@bahrainrights.org, Internet: http://www.bahrainrights.org

10 Dec, 2008

Journalist prosecuted for alleged sedition, slander, false reporting

Urgency: Threat (BCHR/IFEX) - The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) has learned that Maryam Al-Shoroogi, a journalist and writer from "Alwasat" newspaper, was summoned on 1 December 2008 by the Public Prosecution (PP) Office on charges of publishing an article which harms unity and introduces discrimination sedition between citizens in Bahrain.

Al-Shoroogi was interrogated by Nawaf Hamza, Head of Public Prosecutions, who decided to postpone the case until summoning the writer's friend to confirm the validity of the information brought up by the journalist in her article.

The interrogation focused on Al-Shoroogi's response to a Civil Service Bureau (CSB) statement, charging Al-Shoroogi with insulting the Bureau when she accused it of using discriminatory practices based on political affiliation. Moreover, the CSB accused Al-Shoroogi of slander and false reporting when she mentioned her experience of employment discrimination by staff of the Bureau when she and her friend were applying for jobs with the CSB.

In a statement to "Alwasat" newspaper, Al-Shoroogi stated that she told the PP: "There is discrimination taking place. I mentioned the details of my own experience when a friend and I applied for posts with the Civil Service Bureau."

Nabeel Rajab, President of BCHR, stated that: "Prosecuting the journalist and writer Al-Shoroogi is yet another example of deterioration in the level of freedom of expression and journalism in Bahrain". He continued:"The Bahrain government should stop its systematic practice of sectarian discrimination against the majority indigenous Shia, rather than silencing journalists and writers who are highlighting a way to stop it."

RECOMMENDED ACTION: Send appeals to the Bahraini authorities: - urging them to cease harassing journalists and writers who express their views on public affairs and issues related to misconduct, corruption and ill-practices - calling for the amendment or abolition of all legislation targeting journalists and writers who exercise their duty of documenting, reporting and analysing the conduct of public institutions - asking that they repeal the case against Al-Shoroogi and ensure that no reprisals are carried out against her as a result of reporting on discriminatory practices in the government - calling for an end to the practice of sectarian discrimination against the majority indigenous Shia

APPEALS TO: His Highness Sheikh Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa, the King of Bahrain Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa, Cabinet Prime Minister Fax: +97 3 1 721 1363

Please copy appeals to the source if possible.


For further information contact Nabeel Rajab, President, BCHR, Manama, Bahrain, tel: +973 3963 3399 / 3940 0720, fax: +973 1779 5170, e-mail: nabeel.rajab@bahrainrights.org, info@bahrainrights.org, Internet: http://www.bahrainrights.org

6 Dec, 2008

Petition of Activists and Human Rights Defenders in Bahrain

Friday, December 5, 2008 We, the undersigned, are activists and human rights defenders, who, individually and in association with others, strive for the protection and realization of fundamental freedoms as well as the economical, social, cultural, civil and political rights in Bahrain and abroad.

On basis of the Declaration articles recognizing the right and the responsibility of individuals, groups and associations to promote respect for, and foster knowledge of, human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels, known as “the Declaration on Human Rights Defenders” which was adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 9, 1998. In particular, reference is made to Article 1, which states that

“Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to promote and to strive for the protection and realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels”

And Article 2, which states that:” 1. Each State has a prime responsibility and duty to protect, promote and implement all human rights and fundamental freedoms, inter alia by adopting such steps as may be necessary to create all conditions necessary in the social, economic, political as well as other fields and the legal guarantees required to ensure that all persons under its jurisdiction, individually and in association with others, are able to enjoy all these rights and freedoms in practice.

2. Each State shall adopt such legislative, administrative and other steps as may be necessary to ensure that the rights and freedoms referred to in this Declaration are effectively guaranteed. Citing Articles of the International Covenant of the Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), acceded by Bahrain on September 20, 2006, and in particular, Article 2, which states: Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

We, thus:

1- Call upon the Bahraini Authorities to cease harassments of activists and human rights defenders, and eliminate all practices of its various organs, which are aimed at impeding the exercise of their rights and their role in the realization, protection and promotion of economic, social, cultural, civil and political Bahrain, including the introduction of those rights through the available means and mechanisms established by The United Nations and international human rights organizations.

2- call upon the Bahraini Authorities to stop activating and reforming all legislations promulgated during and post the era of the State-security measures, which confiscate the recognized basic rights and violate all norms, international covenants and treaties, including the rights of activists and defenders of rights.

3- Recognizing the important duties performed by human rights defenders, and the dangers they face, we call upon the current representative of the Secretary-General on human rights defenders to put Bahrain in the list of priorities and expedite the visit to Bahrain and meet with activists and defenders of rights there.


1. Nabeel Rajab, president of the Bahrain Center for Human Rights.

2. Mohammed Al-Maskati, president of Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights.

3. Abduljalil Al-Singace, head of the Human Rights Office at the Movement Liberties and Democracy “HAQ”.

4. AbdulGhani Al-Khanjar, spokesman of the National Committee for Martyrs and Victims of Torture.

5. Abbas Omran, a trade unionist and member of Bahrain Center for Human Rights.

6. Mohammed Saeed, human rights defender.

7. Layla Dashti, human rights defender.

8. Nader Al-Salatna, spokesman of the Committee of Unemployed and Underpaid and member Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights.

9. Naji Fateel, member of Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights – (Imprisoned for 5 years since December 2007).

10. Hasan Abdulnabi, the president of the Committee of Unemployed and Underpaid (Imprisoned for 7 years since December 2007).

11. Mohammed Al-Singais, Head of Committee to Combat High Prices - (Imprisoned for 5 years since December 2007).

12. Maitham Sheikh, Member of the Committee of Unemployed and Underpaid – (Imprisoned for 5years since December 2007).

13. Shaker Mohammed Abdulhussein - the Committee of Unemployed and Underpaid – Detained and under prosecution since April 2008).

14. Hassan Kathom Ebrahim Ahmed - Member of the Committee of Unemployed and Underpaid work – (Detained and under prosecution since April 2008).

15. Sadeq Jawad Al-Fardan - Member of the Committee of the Committee of Unemployed and Underpaid – (Detained and under prosecution since April 2008).

16. Ali Mohamed Habib Ashoor - Committee for the Defense of the Detainees – (Detained and under prosecution since April 2008).

17. Habib Mohammed Habib Ashoor - Committee for the Defense of the Detainees – (Detained and under prosecution since April 2008).

18. Sayed Omran Hameed Adnan - member of the Committee Against 1% - (Detained and under prosecution since April 2008).

19. Fadhel Abbas Mohamed Ashoor - member of the Committee to Combat High Prices – (Detained and under prosecution since April 2008)

4 Dec, 2008

Bahrain: Travel restrictions on human rights defender, Abdulghani Al-Khanjar

Front Line is concerned following reports received of a travel ban imposed on human rights defender, Abdulghani Al-Khanjar who was refused entry to Qatar at Doha Airport on 2 December 2008.

Further Information Abdulghani Al-Khanjar has reportedly been prevented from entering Qatar and the other Gulf States due to his presence on a list due that includes his name, along with other activists, that was issued and distributed by the Ministry of Interior in Bahrain. Abdulghani Al-Khanjar is the spokesperson for the Bahraini National Committee for Martyrs and Victims of Torture. Front Line believes that Abdulghani Al-Khanjar has been targeted as a result of his legitimate work in defence of human rights, in particular his work to help the victims of torture in Bahrain. Front Line is concerned that the travel restrictions that has been imposed against Abdulghani Al-Khanjar form part of an ongoing trend of harassment against human rights defenders in Bahrain.


3 Dec, 2008

Visiting human rights organizations should be aware of arranged boasting and polishing press interviews

Local Authorities tailor human rights organizations visits to extract false statements about freedom of expression in Bahrain The sources of the Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) affirmed a funded scheme of inviting some of the regional and international human rights organizations to meet with Bahraini officials and extract statements from them which are used to polish the image of freedom of expression and press in the country.

In a recently published interview with Mr. Nedham Assaf- President of Amman Center for Human Rights Studies, he commended the level of media freedoms in Bahrain, and criticized those who disagree with the Government, without making a reference to reports by local and international organizations regarding the laws which violate basic rights, the constraining practices for liberties, the hard grip over media (TV, Radio and Press), censorship on daily newspapers and barring access to a large number of websites.

According to the published interview with Al-Wasat newspaper, Mr Assaf, who visited Bahrain through an official invitation by the Bahraini Ministry of Information, stated that “Bahrain has a good atmosphere of freedom of press, and a wide space for freedom of expression”.

Reporters without Borders sent a letter on June 26, 2008 to the Bahraini Minister of Information Jehad BuKamal stating that, "the Bahraini journalists are still exposed to imprisonment because of their writings, and the administrative decisions that permit the closing down of websites are still in effect." The organization concluded its letter by saying that, "the 5th article excludes electronic publications from the press law, although it does not seem necessary for us to have a special law for the Internet. It is possible to apply the Press Code No. 47 of 2002 for the entire print press, in disregard of the nature of the press. We finally remind you of our persistence on liberating the audio-visual sector. It is not possible to expand the space for liberties, which you are striving to achieve, without putting an end to state monopoly for this sector."

The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights calls its colleagues in the Amman Centre for Human Rights Studies to look at the international reports on liberties in Bahrain, and not to fall into the scheme of promoting countries which violate freedom of expression, press and media. The Government, when inviting officials of these organizations to Bahrain, it tailors and arranges interviews which are with pro-government figures and institutions (GONGOS), while it prevents them from meeting with independent NGOs and civil societies.

30 Nov, 2008

Public Relations will not Resolve Sectarian Discrimination- Patton Boggs is the lobbying group for the government in the USA

The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights notes the recent appointment of law firm Patton Boggs as a lobbying group for the Bahraini government in the USA. According to the Washington Intelligence Online Report, the Bahraini authorities have hired the Democrat lobbyists, "essentially to say the Shi'ites are getting a fair shake in Bahrain".

"Lobbying is of course a legitimate practice and powerful tool in the American system," Bahrain Centre for Human Rights President Nabeel Rajab said.

"What concerns us is that the issue the government will be lobbying on - discrimination against the Shia majority in Bahrain - and the approach the Bahraini authorities have taken towards this issue. "This action shows us that the government has full intentions to continue with its policies of sectarian discrimination, marginalization and disenfranchisement of a large percentage of the population.

"Instead of putting money into tackling these problems on a local scale by addressing issues of poverty, the national housing shortage, unemployment and discrimination, the government has chosen to put money into a public relations venture, presumably to cover up these problems in the face of the international community."

Facts on Sectarian Discrimination in Bahrain (taken from the BCHR Shadow Report to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination):

+ Discrimination against the Shia is institutionalized at the highest level of government office

+ Although Shia citizens account for at least 70 % of the population, they hold less than 13 % of top ranking positions in Ministries

+ A report revealed in 2006 by former government consultant Dr Salah Al Bander revealed the adoption of a national programme to illegally naturalize Sunnis from tribal groups in the region in order to alter the demographic make-up of Bahrain's population

+ Permits to establish Shia places of worship are regularly denied

+ The religious national curriculum does not teach about practices and beliefs of Shia Islam

+ In order to maintain sectarian segregation, Shias are denied the right to buy land in certain areas of the country, including the area of Riffa in which most of the ruling family have settled

Although the Bahraini government has ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, it cannot be invoked in Bahraini courts.

25 Nov, 2008

BCHR Lawyer subjected to search and interrogation at the Airport

Bahrain: Fear of breach of Clients as well as BCHR Privacy resulting from copying information from his laptop and cell phone:

Ref: 08110700 The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, is highly concerned about the new practice of targeting and harassing human Rights defenders, as the Bahrain Authorities apprehended Mr Mohammed Majeed Aljeshi at Bahrain International Airport during which his cell phone and laptop were confiscated in a clear intention of copying information. Mohammed Aljesshi is a lawyer who has been involved in defending many cases of detained human rights defenders during the last two years in cooperation with the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights and the relatives of detainees. Mohammed Aljeshi told BCHR that on Monday 3rd of November 2008, he was stopped at the immigration check point leaving Bahrain to Geneva to attend a special training on UN mechanism, and was surrounded by 5 security men in plain clothes. They took him by force to an isolated room, prevented him from using his mobile, and took away both his mobile and laptop for over an hour. The men, who ar suspected to be members of the National Security Apparatus, were observed to be taken instructions over the phone from a higher authority. During the interrogation, Mr Aljishi was asked about his work as a lawyer and who planned his trip to Geneva. In protest their unacceptable actions, Mr Aljishi refused to answer any question unless the security individuals reveal their identity and the reason behind what they did. They responed that they have instructions not to answer any questions and that he could ask the Public Relations at the Ministry of Interior when all of this had finished. One of them told Mr Aljishi that he is on a special security list. After the interrogation, Mr Aljishi was given back his mobile and laptop, and was allowed to continue his trip. He noticed that reports in his laptop related to the BCHR were opened as well as a video film presented as evidence to the court case of five Human rights defenders, appealing against their prison sentence . Mohammed told the BCHR that he had been under surveillance in the last few months and was once prevented from attending a court session, an incident strongly protested against by the Bahrain Bar Society. Mr Aljishi was never stopped or searched when leaving or coming back to the country. BCHR contemplates that it might be the information, the security Authority thought he might have in relation to court cases or human rights network and activities that may have instigated this search and interrogation. "It is also a strong message to me and to other human rights defenders", he said. The BCHR calls for addressing the Bahraini Authorities that they: 1. Put an end to the surveillance and the systematic harassment of Human Rights activists in Bahrain. 2. Insure the protection of the privacy of human right activists, whether related to their personal information or that of their work with human rights organization. 3. Introduce a legislation to protect all human rights defenders on the basis of the UN declaration of Human Rights defenders.

24 Nov, 2008

Arrest of Former Prisoner at Guantanamo by the Saudi authorities

Former Prisoner at Guantanamo Bay

The Saudi Security Arrest a Bahraini Citizen on King Fahad Causeway

Manama – 23 November/2008 The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights is deeply concerned at information received about the arrest of Bahraini citizen Abdullah Majid Al-Nuaimi on October 29, 2008 by the Saudi authorities as he was entering the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia via the King Fahad causeway which connects Bahrain with Saudi Arabia. Mr Al Nuaimi was then taken to an unknown destination. Since his arrest he has not been allowed to meet with any family members, nor allowed to hire or meet an attorney. The Saudi authorities have as yet failed to release charges against him. Abdullah Al-Nuaimi (age 26), a father of two and an electrical contractor, was held at Guantanamo Bay with 5 other Bahraini citizens for almost four years after being arrested at the Pakistan-Afghan border in November 2001. He was returned to Bahrain as a free man on November 5th 2008. Al Nuaimi has previously described how he was tortured by the American authorities at the maximum security prison in Cuba. Since his release, security authorities in Bahrain have called him in for questioning on several occasions and until very recently he was banned from travelling outside the country.

It is worth mentioning that the release of Mr Al Nuaimi from Guantanamo Bay came after a wide-scale local, regional and international campaign for the release of all detainees in Guantanamo and in the United States' secret prisons spearheaded by the BCHR.

The campaign was established by liasing with a large number of attorneys in the United States to represent Arab detainees in US Federal Courts and by working with international organizations in order to pressure the American government to close down the infamous prison.

Joshua Colangelo-Bryan who has been instrumental in representing the interests of the Bahraini nationals was locked up in Guantanamo Bay said ”Abdulla spent years in Guantanamo without any due process. As such, I can only hope that he is treated fairly by Saudi authorities and released immediately if - as news reports suggest - he was arrested simply because he drove from Bahrain to Saudi”.

Initially the Bahraini authorities failed to play their part in pushing for the release of their citizens. However, following public pressure from the American lawyers, NGOs, and support from members of the House of Representatives the government began diplomatic negotiations after two years of the detainees' imprisonment. It should be noted that the Bahraini government has pledged its support in assisting its citizens released from Guantanamo in re-establishing normal lives on their return through financial support and help with social integration. However, since the return of the detainees the government has failed to fulfill the promise of support and rehabilitation it previously stated in official releases and the local media.

Nabeel Rajab, head of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights stated, "While we fully respect and appreciate our brothers in Saudi Arabia, we do not accept for any of our citizens to be arrested in this arbitrary manner, which violates the simplest international norms. Today there are international standards and charters that should be respected as part of every country's role in the international community."

The Saudi authorities, in their arbitrary arrest of Mr Al-Nuaimi violated the ninth article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile," and the fourth article as well of the Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment which states that, "any form of detention or imprisonment and all measures affecting the human rights of a person under any form of detention or imprisonment shall be ordered by, or be subject to the effective control of, a judicial or other authority." "We are also raising questions about the role of the Bahraini government in this arrest. We call on the government to take immediate diplomatic action on behalf of one of their citizens," Mr Rajab added.

The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights calls for: 1. The Saudi authorities to provide immediate legal guarantees for the detainee, including allowing him to hire an attorney and meet his family and to release the charges for his arrest. 2. The Bahraini authorities, as promised earlier, to provide financial and emotional support to all the Bahraini prisoners that were released from Guantanamo Bay in order to facilitate them in maintaining a normal life.

18 Nov, 2008

Minister of Information replaced following TV programme critical of ruling elite corruption

The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) has learned that the Bahraini Minister of Information, Jihad Bu-Kamal, has been replaced by Shaikha Mai Al-Khalifa, a member of the royal family, after a talk-show program criticising the ruling elite of corruption was aired on TV. Bu-Kamal, a businessman and former member of the Appointed Shura Council, was named Minister of Information just over a year ago in a limited ministerial cabinet shuffle. Bu-Kamal took the place of Mohamed Abdulghaffar, the current Bahraini ambassador to Brussels, after a row over a cultural programme (coordinated by Al-Khalifa, who was then the assistant secretary to the Ministry of Information. The programme provoked the Islamists in Parliament, leading to the creation of a committee, which denounced the programme and its coordinator. Last week, the Bahraini TV programme "Al-Meezan" invited Ibrahim Sharif, Secretary General of the National Democratic Action Society, also known as "Waad," and Abdulnabi Salman, a former member of Parliament and member of the Progressive Democratic Forum Society, also known as "Al-Menbar", to speak about the 2007 Report of the Fiscal Monitoring Bureau. In that TV programme, Abdulnabi and Sharif criticised the fiscal report, pointing to the deterioration of the oversight capabilities of Parliament, and accused the government of hiding detailed information concerning oil revenues, future funds, tenders and the spending of the military and service ministries. Sharif accused the executive branch, led by Shaikh Khalifa Bin Salman Al-Khalifa, Bahrain's only prime minister since 1970, of lying and misleading the public with regards to misappropriations of public funds. He further inquired about the inflated budget of the Royal Court, as well as of other state-owned companies. Sharif accused the ruling elite of breaching the Bahraini Constitution, which limited the funds allocated to the Royal Court. Nabeel Rajab, the president of BHCR, stated, "This is a sad and strange act by the Bahraini government, whose public relations endeavours try to portray Bahrain as an oasis of transparency and respect for freedom of expression." The BCHR deplores the reprisal against the Minister of Information for giving members of political societies a single opportunity to express their views on public issues live and without constraints. "The Minister of Information was penalised for not ensuring that the invited TV guests would not express their views in this unapproved manner," Rajab added. Last week, the Bahraini Minister of Interior, a member of the royal family, issued a statement threatening citizens with legal prosecution for any form of contact with foreign agencies or participation in events concerning local issues while outside Bahrain. The Bahraini authorities should refrain from penalising its citizens for expressing their views and should lift all legislative restrictions on any form of expression. BCHR believes that the Bahraini authorities should loosen their grip over TV, radio and the press to enable citizens to express themselves without fear of punishment or legal action.

15 Nov, 2008


At a human rights event in Washington, D.C. last month, the head of IFEX member Bahrain Center for Human Rights Nabeel Rajab and two other human rights defenders discussed how Shia citizens of Bahrain are continually shut out - of government jobs, the best education opportunities, the media, places to worship.

When the activists returned home, they were branded "traitors to Bahrain" and "stooges to the United States" in the media - by members of their very own government.

Twenty-four IFEX members and partners are calling for solidarity with the three human rights defenders and government assurances that they are free to carry out their work without intimidation or reprisal.

Rajab, along with Abduljalil Alsingace, the head of the Human Rights Unit of the HAQ Movement of civil liberties and democracy, and Maryam Alkhawaja, a youth activist and member of BCHR, were invited to brief U.S. Congress members on how political reforms are affecting religious freedom in Bahrain.

Since their participation in the 15 October event, they have been exposed to a defamation campaign through state-controlled media and religious venues. Members of Parliament, columnists and editors of local Arabic newspapers, as well as statements and sermons through mosques and religious centres, said their human rights activities were a call for foreigners to intrude in local affairs, and that they should be severely punished. Some have even called for the defenders to be jailed or tried for sedition.

The IFEX members said they were "alarmed" at the language, level of provocation and intimidation in the articles, and said the government was also to blame. "Such a campaign has been encouraged by the silence of the authorities and judicial establishment, which should be expected to respond... as they would if a similar campaign was made against officials, members of the government or the ruling family," said the groups.

Bahrain's Interior Minister, Shaikh Rashid Bin Abdalla al-Khalifa, has since demanded that Article 34 of Bahrain's penal code be enforced, reports ARTICLE 19. The article says that citizens who attend meetings or conferences abroad or meet with representatives of foreign bodies to talk about Bahrain's internal affairs will face no less than three months in jail and a fine.

"The minister's statement is an attempt to silence human rights defenders and severely impedes freedom of expression in Bahrain. ARTICLE 19 is deeply concerned about articles in the Bahraini Penal Code which deprive Bahrainis of the right to freedom of expression," said ARTICLE 19.

The case of the three rights defenders is not isolated. According to reports by human rights groups submitted to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in April, "threats, ill treatment, torture, and all forms of intimidation and harassment have been directed towards Bahraini human rights defenders in recent years."

ARTICLE 19 mentions Mohammed Abdul Nabi al-Maskati, founder of the Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights (BYSHR), a youth group designed to encourage fellow young people to learn about and promote human rights in accordance with international standards. He faces six months in jail or a steep fine for "running an unlicensed association" - even though he tried registering the group as an NGO in June 2005. He is due in court in January.

Front Line, an international foundation that protects human rights defenders, has organised a letter-writing campaign to take action on behalf of the Bahraini activists. Copy the letter here and send it to the addresses provided: http://www.frontlinedefenders.org/node/1617/action

Also visit these links: - IFEX joint action: http://tinyurl.com/6edpxp - BCHR: http://www.bahrainrights.org/en - ARTICLE 19: http://tinyurl.com/5f2z65 - Front Line: http://www.frontlinedefenders.org/bahrain -Human Rights watch: http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2008/11/12/bahrai20194.htm

(12 November 2008)