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Human rights groups called for Formula One to seek the immediate release of Najah Yusuf and Ahmed Humaindan

Jean Todt,

President Federation Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA)

8, Place de la Concorde

75008 Paris, France

Dear Jean Todt,

We, the undersigned organisations, write to draw your attention to the human rights and press freedom violations committed by the Bahraini authorities, including against people protesting the Bahrain Grand Prix.

The Bahraini Government attaches great importance to the Bahrain Grand Prix as a glamor status symbol of progress and international prestige. For this reason, the race has become a focal point for protests calling for political reform as well as a pretext for the authorities to further crack down on free speech and assembly.

Leading human rights organisations have documented the spike in human rights abuses that occur each year around the time of the race. The Bahraini government uses such events, and the lack of global concern about such abuses, to sanitise—or “sports-wash”—its image abroad while continuing to abuse its citizens domestically.

Since 2015, Formula One has had a human rights statement, which it adopted after a mediation process when Americans for Democracy & Human Rights in Bahrain (ADHRB) filed a complaint in the United Kingdom, where the main Formula One companies are based, under the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. The guidelines emphasise the corporate responsibility to carry out human rights due diligence and cooperate with legitimate processes in remediating impacts they have caused or contributed to. Its “Statement of Commitment to Respect for Human Rights” pledges: “The Formula 1 companies are committed to respecting internationally recognised human rights in its operations globally.”

One case of Bahraini abuse is the imprisoned mother of four and Bahraini activist, Najah Yusuf, who was arbitrarily arrested and said she was tortured and sexually assaulted a week after Facebook posts criticising the 2017 Bahrain Grand Prix were published on an account she comanaged.

The posts in question called for “No to Formula races on occupied Bahraini land,” and criticised the Bahrain Grand Prix for being“nothing more than a way for the al-Khalifa family to whitewash their criminal record and gross human rights violations”. They also called for a “Freedom for the Formula 1 Detainees” march to put the spotlight on protestors jailed for criticising the Bahrain Grand Prix. These posts were all included in the evidence submitted by the Public Prosecution against her, and her social media activity opposing the Grand Prix was referenced in her court judgement.

Formula One publicly expressed concern in November 2018 about Ms. Yusuf’s case. The Bahraini Government continues to claim that her arrest and conviction “has nothing to do” with her protest of the Grand Prix. The Bahraini Government made similar claims in relation to other high-profile political prisoners, including Bahraini human rights defender Nabeel Rajab and the family members of Bahraini pro-democracy activist Sayed Ahmed Alwadaei. Both Rajab and Alwadaei were present during the OECD mediation process that led to Formula One adopting its human rights policy in 2015.

Moreover, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists, there are several reporters serving prison sentences who were arrested for activities and coverage related to the event. Ahmed Humaidan is a priority case due to his deteriorating health and because the timing of his prison sentence appeared to be related to the run-up to the race in 2014. The arrest of Sayed Ahmed al-Mosawi also appears to be linked to an effort to restrict protests and journalism in the lead up to the race in 2014. It is noteworthy that award-winning photographer Mohammad al-Sheikh was also detained shortly before the race in 2017. Together there is a clear pattern of repression and detention of journalists and restriction of press freedom by the Bahraini authorities around the races.

With the 2019 Bahrain Grand Prix fast approaching, we suggest Formula One take immediate action on these cases by:

a. Publicly calling for Ms. Yusuf and Mr. Humaidan’s immediate and unconditional release; and

b. Sending a high-level delegation from Formula One and Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) leaders to visit Ms. Yusuf and Ahmed Humaidan in Isa Town Prison and Jau Prison, which are only 20 km and 24 km away from Bahrain’s International Circuit, respectively. This is consistent with the actions of other sports federations, for example, FIFA’s sending senior staff to monitor the hearing in Thailand of Bahraini refugee footballer Hakeem al-Araibi.


1.Americans for Democracy & Human Rights in Bahrain (ADHRB)

2.Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR)

3.Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy (BIRD)

4.Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)

5.European Centre for Democracy and Human Rights (ECDHR)

6.Football Supporters Europe

7.Gulf Centre for Human Rights (GCHR)

8.Human Rights Watch (HRW)

9.International Service for Human Rights (ISHR)

10.International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)

11.PEN International

12.Reporters Without Borders (RSF)

13.Transparency International Germany

14.Women's March Global

15.World Players Association, UNI Global Union


Copy to Ms. Sacha Woodward-Hill, General Counsel to F1

Bahrain: Athletes Being Targeted

The detention of Ali Marhoun and Mohammed Khalil reveals the continued targeting of athletes by the authorities

The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) expresses its deep concern over the continued targeting of athletes by the Bahraini authorities, and their ill-treatment. The security services recently arrested Mohammed Khalil, a player in Bahrain Bowling Team, and the player of the Al- Ma'ameer Volleyball Club Ali Marhoun and his brother, the sports photographer Hassan Marhoun. They were arrested on the background of charges related to the political and legal situation in the country.

On Tuesday, 29 January 2019, the police forces arbitrarily arrested the player in Al- Ma'ameer Volleyball Club, Ali Jafar Marhoun (22 years old) and his three brothers, Mohammed, Houssein and Hassan (a sports photographer). They broke into their house in Al-Ma'ameer by climbing the wall, and arrested them without presenting an arrest warrant or legal authorization for inspection.

Public prosecution accused Ali of participating in placing a fake bomb on the highway. The three brothers were accused of the same charge before they were released on 19 February 2019. Ali remained in prison until the date of issuing this statement. Ali's family reported to the Bahrain Center for Human Rights that the police officers responsible for the arrest of Ali had beaten him during the house raid. Ali told his family that he was beaten during the interrogation for the purpose of enforced confession. He was subsequently detained for 30 days on pending investigation.

On Friday, 08 March 2019, the police forces arrested the player in Bahrain Bowling Team, Mohammed Khalil Ebrahim. He was leaving Bahrain International Airport for official participation in an international championship in the UAE. Mohammed is facing a previous sentence of one-year imprisonment for gathering with others after his arrest in 2015. His family reported the invalidity of judgment against Mohammed, being that he was on duty at the time of the alleged gathering.

Since the beginning of 2019, authorities have arrested four athletes, including Jawad Al-Khabbaz, a football coach and a former press photographer. He was fired from his job in Al-Watan after the peaceful protests in Bahrain in 2011, before his release after 20 days of detention.

Bahrain has been under intense international criticism for its targeting of athletes and journalists, the most recent of which was the case of Bahraini player Hakeem Al-Araibi. Hakeem is a refugee in Australia who was arrested in Thailand on the orders of the Bahraini government before being released following an international campaign to support his cause.

The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) strongly condemns the Bahraini government's continued targeting of activists, journalists and athletes as well as the various human rights abuses ongoing in the country. The Bahraini government usually accuses activists of cases where confessions are extracted under degrading treatment during interrogation.


The Bahrain Center for Human Rights calls on the international community to put pressure on the government of Bahrain to:

• Immediately release all detained athletes and journalists in Bahrain

• Stop targeting activists, athletes and journalists

• Commit to international conventions and covenants ratified by Bahrain

• Investigate allegations of torture and hold the responsible accountable  


Detention robs the freedom of children in Bahrain

Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) condemns the arbitrary detention of children Hussein Radhi Abdullah and Ali Hussein AbdulWahab. They were detained for five days after being charged with illegal gathering. These children were among the 10 cases of detention of children under the age of 18, according to the Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) monitoring from 11 to 17 February 2019.

Arbitrary arrests were carried out during the same period. Some children were arrested by raiding their houses at early morning without a legal warrant. Others, including Hussein and Ali, were arrested from the street without knowing the reason for the arrest or even presenting the warrant. They are often investigated without a legal representative and are not allowed to communicate with the outside world. They are often subjected to psychological torture to force them to confess to the charges against them, thus arrest and imprison them, depriving them of their freedom and education.

The centre asserts that the international law obligates the authorities of any State to respect and treat the child as a minor while Bahraini authorities classify those children as “terrorists” in an attempt to justify their detention. The government of Bahrain has signed to the convention  on the Rights of Child that guarantees the safety of children which states in its 37th article that no child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Based on the above, Bahrain Center for Human Rights calls on the authorities in Bahrain to:

 -Immediate and unconditional release of detained children
- Commit to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the application of its provisions
- Stop targeting children and allow them to complete their education and exercise their rights guaranteed by international covenants and conventions
-Ensure fair trial for children who are found to be involved in cases in front of specialized courts and guarantee all their rights

Wave of arrests as Bahrain marks anniversary of 14 February uprising

The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR) is concerned by the wave of arrests that have been carried in the run up to and on 14 February, which marks the anniversary of the 2011 uprising.


Around 40 arrests have been carried out so far as Bahrain marks the uprising anniversary. In the two days leading up to the anniversary, 28 arrests were carried out, with 11 further arrests in the morning of 14 February, including three minors. It is likely that further arrests will follow.


The majority of these arrests, which took place in over ten different areas, were carried out following unlawful house raids. A further arrest was carried out against a protestor.


Also in the lead up to the anniversary, dozens of peaceful protests have taken place in many cities, including Al-Manama. In the afternoon of 14 February, one protest was met by tear gas.


BCHR: “Each year, we see a growing crackdown at this time of year. In 2017 we saw excessive force used against protestors, leading to many injuries. So far this year, we have seen a wave of arrests carried out, and expect that more could follow”.

Based on the above, the Bahrain Center for Human Rights calls on the United States, the United Kingdom, the United Nations, the European Union and all international human rights organizations to put more pressure on the government of Bahrain to:

• Immediate and unconditional release of those arbitrarily detained

• Immediately put an end to violations of human rights, in particular the right to express opinions and freedom of peaceful assembly

• Accountability of those responsible for violations, regardless of their position

• Compensation of victims in fair compensation pursuant to the size of their injuries. 


To see more

Bahrain: 8 years on from 2011, Reform and Accountability Remain a Mirage

Beirut, February 13th, 2019Human Rights Organizations call for Accountability Regarding Human Rights Violations in Bahrain

A conference on the human rights situation in Bahrain was held in Beirut, on the 13th of February 2019 with the participation of international human rights organizations, experts, CSOs, activists and researchers. Members of prominent organizations such Human Rights Watch, FIDH, Amnesty International, Index on Censorship, and others have participated in the discussions of the topics of the conference.

All participants have agreed on the need for accountability to deal with the ongoing deterioration of the human rights situation that has been happening since 2011.

Some of the topics discussed revolved around the status of women HRDs, the shutdown on Freedom of Expression, the forms of electronic repression, the failure in implementing the BICI recommendations, and the lack of accountability in Bahrain.

Among the participants, some of the important statements were:

The head of FIDH, Dimitris Christopoulos, said that “Treating Nabeel Rajab the way they did shows that human rights defenders threaten their system by advocating peace".

The Advocacy Officer at Salam DHR, Joshua Cooper, said that “it is clear that BICI process has long come to a halt. To answer why, involves answering why human rights as a whole have regressed in Bahrain, including in the absence of any political transition, the use of sectarian and security narratives, and a lack of international support.”

Jodie Ginsberg the CEO at Index on Censorship commented that “I expect to see a clear commitment from Bahrain's allies that continued cooperation is dependent on Bahrain's commitment to uphold universal human rights.”

Aya Majzoub, the researcher at Human Rights Watch, declared that “the recent victory in Hakeem Al-Araibi’s case proves that the effort to put pressure on Bahrain has been successful in order to reform its human rights record .”

Bahrain Center for Human Rights: We thank the people and the government of Australia for their support of Al-Araibi

Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) welcomes the decision of releasing the Bahraini football player, Hakeem Al-Araibi, detained by the Thai authorities, after Bahrain dropped extradition proceedings.

Bahrain Center for Human Rights considers his release a result of cooperation between human rights organizations, governments and the football community in the past two months. Therefore, BCHR thanks Australia, people and government, and all other countries that contribute in his release.

BCHR: “We have worked hard with many members of human rights organizations around the world to reach this result”.

The case of the 25 year-old player who was a refugee in Australia since 2014, and a member of football club in Melbourne had become widely known. He was detained by Thai authorities in last November at Bangkok airport when coming from Australia to spend the honeymoon with his wife. Al-Araibi’s detention was in response to an international arrest warrant requested by Bahrain.

The Thai judiciary began to consider the Bahraini authorities request to extradite him to carry out a previous sentence of 10 years imprisonment. The charges were a result of participating in the “Arab Spring” events in 2011 that included Bahrain, which the player completely denies.

The International Conference “Bahrain: 8 years of Repression Under International Silence”: Human Rights Organizations call for a Radical Change

After the eight-year anniversary of the start of mass democratic protests that took place on the 14th of February 2011, when tens and thousands of Bahrainis peacefully protested and called for reforms, “Bahrain Center for Human Rights”, with the cooperation of “Bahrain Interfaith”, organized an International Conference. Its goal was to discuss the necessary steps to put a stop to the deterioration of the human rights situation in Bahrain. The conference “Bahrain: 8 years of Repression Under International Silence” shed light on the repressive methods used by the Bahraini government since 2011, which focus on crushing civil society and dissent by arresting activists and human rights defenders, issuing death sentences and dissolving civil and political associations.

Beirut hosted the International Conference on Wednesday, January 16th, as the Arab capital of international human rights organizations. Members of prominent organizations such Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, Human Rights First, IFEX, FIDH, Civicus and others have participated in the discussions of the topics of the conference.

Saloua Boukaouit moderated the first panel that discussed the situation of “Human Rights Defenders in Bahrain” and the panelists were Khalid Ibrahim (Director of the GCHR), Ahmed AlWedaei (Director of Advisory BIRD), Mohamad Najem (Co-founder of SMEX), and Kristina Stockwood (Advisory Board GCHR). Additionally, in the second panel, the moderator Annie Game (IFEX Director) discussed the “International Perspectives towards Human Rights violations in Bahrainwith Aya Majzoub (Researcher at HRW), Brian Dooley (Senior Advisor Human Rights First), and Devin Kenny (Researcher at Amnesty). In the third panel which were entitled “Civic and political space in Bahrain”, the panelists were Fadi Al-Qadi (Independent), Drewery Dyke (Salam Director), and Joe Stork (Independent), while Ariel Plotkin moderated the discussion.

The conference issued recommendations after discussions in the form of round tables. There was a call on international diplomatic missions for observing the trials of political activists, human rights defenders and freedom of expression, as well as reporting on due-process violations; that was in addition to verify the status of the detainees of opinion and work to convince the king to end violations and activate the role of the parliaments of the European Union, the United States and Britain.

Among the recommendations were to make use of influential international media and inviting special rapporteurs on torture to visit Bahrain and link it to the obligations of the Committee Against Torture (CAT). Scoping missions to assess which countries/businesses/organizations have most leverage on Bahrain was added to recommendations. The conference also recommended that attention must be paid in the Arab media to the issues of detainees, not just the prominent ones, and to launching a campaign ahead the Formula1 race.

The conference included a video for Nabeel Rajab’s daughter saying: “Instead of honoring my father for his human rights activism in my country he has been subjected in inhumane conditions and ill-treatment in prison. I hope the entire world calls for Nabeel Rajab’s immediate release and for the Bahraini authorities to drop the charges against him.” 

Bahrain: Unabated Repression Free Speech and Association, Dissidents Under Attack

Bahrain cracked down on peaceful dissent during 2018, virtually eliminating all opposition, Human Rights Watch said today in releasing its World Report 2019
No independent media were allowed to operate in the country in 2018, and ahead of parliamentary elections in November, parliament banned members of dissolved opposition parties from being able to run. Peaceful dissidents were arrested, prosecuted, ill-treated, and stripped of citizenship. 

“The Bahraini authorities have demonstrated a zero tolerance policy when it comes to free media, independent political thought, and peaceful dissent,” said Lama Fakih, deputy Middle East and North Africa director at Human Rights Watch. “Despite the stream of arrests and convictions of dissidents, Bahrain’s allies have failed to use their influence to improve Bahrain’s rights record at home or abroad.” 

In the 674-page World Report 2019, its 29th edition, Human Rights Watch reviewed human rights practices in more than 100 countries. In his introductory essay, Executive Director Kenneth Roth says that the populists spreading hatred and intolerance in many countries are spawning a resistance. New alliances of rights-respecting governments, often prompted and joined by civic groups and the public, are raising the cost of autocratic excess. Their successes illustrate the possibility of defending human rights – indeed, the responsibility to do so – even in darker times.

In the days leading up to the November parliamentary elections, the government detained a former member of parliament, Ali Rashed al-Asheeri, after he tweeted about boycotting the elections. He was released on bail three days after the election. On November 4, the Bahrain High Court of Appeals overturned the previous acquittal of a prominent opposition member, Sheikh Ali Salman, sentencing him to life in prison on espionage charges. Salman is the leader of Bahrain’s largest political opposition group, al-Wifaq, which wasoutlawed in 2016.

Nabeel Rajab, one of Bahrain’s preeminent human rights defenders, completed a two-year prison term for “spreading false news” in June. He then immediately began a five-year prison term for his tweets criticizing alleged torture in Bahrain’s Jaw Prison and the Saudi-led military campaign in Yemen. Duaa al-Wadaei, wife of a prominent exiled activist, Sayed Ahmed al-Wadaei, was sentenced to prison in absentia on March 21 for allegedly insulting an officer at the Manama airport in 2016.

In September, three female human rights defenders held in the Isa Town Prison, Hajer Mansoor Hasan, Najah Yusuf, and Medina Ali,said that prison officials assaulted them and restricted their family visits, phone calls, and time spent outside of their cells. The National Institution for Human Rights dismissed these allegations

The oversight bodies that government set up in 2012 in response to a recommendation by the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI) once again in 2018 did not investigate credible allegations of prison abuse or hold officials who participated in and ordered widespread torture during interrogations since 2011 accountable.

According to one human rights group, in 2018, the courts stripped 305 people of their citizenship, bringing the total since 2012 to 810. The majority of Bahraini nationals stripped of their citizenship were left effectively stateless. As of November, Bahraini prisons held 14 people on death row.

Despite significant human rights concerns in Bahrain and its participation in the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen, which is committing serious violations of international humanitarian law, the United States State Department approved five major weapons sales to Bahrain between January and November.

Bahrain Center For Human Rights organizes the international conference “Bahrain: 8 years of Repression Under International Silence”

Beirut, January 16th, 2019_ Human Rights Organizations call for a Radical Change in International Policies Tackling Human Rights Violation in Bahrain


An international conference on the human rights situation in Bahrain was held in Beirut, on the 16th of January 2019 with the participation of international human rights organizations, experts, CSOs, activists and researchers. Members of prominent organizations such Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, Human Rights First, IFEX, FIDH, Civicus and others have participated in the discussions of the topics of the conference.

All participants have agreed on the emergency of implementing a new international strategy to deal with the ongoing deterioration of the human rights situation that has been happening under the silence of the international community, including the UK and the USA.

Some of the topics discussed revolved around the harassment and prosecution of human rights defenders, the closure of civic and political space, the lack of democratic political pluralism, the ban on the entrance of UN special rapporteurs to Bahrain amongst others.

Among the participants, some of the important statements were:

Joe stork made a comment saying that “the silence we are talking about is not international; it is enforced silence in Bahrain.”

Aya Majzoub, the researcher at Human Rights Watch, declared that “We have 5 joint statements on Bahrain since 2012, last one was in 2015. Part of the reason that we haven’t had another joint statement on Bahrain because no country is willing to take the lead.”

The senior Advisor in Human Rights First, Brian Dooley, said that “for the time in generations, in Washington (US Congress), questions are being asked that haven’t been asked before, this is an opportunity to be used.”



  • Call on international diplomatic missions Bahrain to:

-observe trials of {political} activists, Human Rights Defenders, Freedom of Expression

-Report on due-process violations

  • Raise profile of prominent Rights Defenders publically in the US and UK.
  • Special Rapporteurs on torture to visit Bahrain and linking it to CAT obligations.
  • Scoping missions to assess which countries/businesses/organizations have most leverage on Bahrain.
  • Campaigning ahead of F1 races
  • Messaging: more focus on broader trends of repression in Bahrain, not just prominent Human Rights Defenders, especially in Arabic Media.
  • Use Parliamentary procedures in the UK and the US (US Congress) to raise questions about Bahrain.


UN: Press briefing note on Bahrain

Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights:  Ravina Shamdasani
Location: Geneva 
Date: 4 January 2019
Subject: Bahrain

We call on the Government of Bahrain to immediately and unconditionally release prominent human rights defender Nabeel Rajab and to ensure that all Bahrainis are able to exercise their rights to freedom of opinion and expression without fear of arbitrary detention. 

Rajab has been imprisoned since June 2016 for tweeting in 2015 about Saudi Arabia’s airstrikes in Yemen and allegations of torture inside Bahrain’s Jau Prison. One such tweet read as follows: “We have the right to say no to the war in #Yemen and should struggle for peace and security but not bloodshed #Sanaa.” On Monday this week, Bahrain’s highest court – the Court of Cassation – upheld Rajab’s conviction and five-year prison sentence on charges of "spreading false news and rumours in time of war", "insulting foreign countries" and "insulting publicly the interior ministry". The UN Working Group of Arbitrary Detention had last year declared Rajab’s detention to be arbitrary.

Monday’s court decision brings into focus the continued suppression of Government critics in Bahrain through arbitrary arrest and detention, travel bans, harassment, threats, revocation of citizenship and other means. There have been numerous reports of human rights defenders, political activists, journalists and opposition figures being targeted for the exercise of their rights to freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association. The UN Secretary-General’s report on reprisals in September 2018 highlighted several specific cases where civil society activists and their families in Bahrain suffered reprisals for seeking to engage with UN human rights mechanisms, including the Human Rights Council. In some of the cases, the activists were accused of terrorism-related offences.

The arrest, detention and imprisonment of individuals for the exercise of their fundamental human rights is in violation of Bahrain’s obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which it has ratified. We urge the Government of Bahrain to stop criminalising dissenting voices.